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Gaia Explorer in terminal

How to display a real-time blockchain dashboard in your terminal.ProblemFor developers using the Cosmos SDK, getting real-time information from your current environment can be helpful feedback, especially when working with transactions, blocks, validators, or versioning in your blockchain.As Cosmos SDK base blockchains are built using different computers and environments, for example, some developers use a headless VPS that does not contain a user interface, it can be a real challenge for them to view the current state of their blockchain.SolutionThis is why we have created GEX, a lightweight explorer that launches in the terminal and does not require a browser or any other tools.GEX creates a — quick access — dashboard for your blockchain by providing the following:current blockchain stateversion informationthe newest blocksassigned validatorsa livestream of incoming transactions in JSON formatHow it worksGEX uses a combination of WebSockets and RPC endpoints to show the current blockchain state and incoming transactions in real-time. With the WebSocket integrated, you can be sure no block or transaction will be missed as all updates are in real-time.SpecificationThe application is written in Golang, easy to install and simple to start. It is using a combination of WebSocket (for transactions, blocks, and validator changes) and RPC (for initial state or network status information).InstallationFirst, run your Cosmos SDK blockchain application.Then Install:go get -u run it with:gexThis should show an explorer in your terminal.GEX is published as Open Source Software and intended to be expanded upon. Feel free to adapt the source code to your needs and make it your own.Visit the code on: the cosmos 🚀 Tobias SchwarzGaia Explorer in terminal was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 19

ICF Update — Nov 17th

ICF Update — Nov 17thCosmos Jobs Launches; ICF Engages Orijitech for Security Development; Hackathon V Concludes; ICF Joins Future of Cosmos Broadcast; UX Working Group Making Quick Progress;Welcome to the sixth edition of our bi-weekly update! We’ll be using this space to highlight some of the exciting activities that took place at the Interchain Foundation over the last two weeks. This will include some check-in meetings that occurred with various funding recipients, as well as goings-on that members of the Interchain ecosystem might find interesting and informative.If any of the updates are especially relevant to what you are working on, feel free to drop us a line at you missed the last update, check it out at ICF Update — Nov 3rd.Cosmos Jobs LaunchesLast week was the public launch of, the new jobs directory for projects linked to Cosmos and the wider Internet of Blockchains. The website was built by Promise Protocols as part of the Q2 funding cycle. The site is being maintained by Promise Protocols with special support from ICF, Tendermint and superstar Daniela Pavin aka @catdotfish. There is also a new Twitter account at @JobsCosmos where new opportunities are regularly featured.For more information on the launch and how to use the site, check out the Introducing Cosmos Jobs Board.ICF Engages Orijitech for Security DevelopmentThe ICF recently finalized an ongoing service agreement with Emmanuel Odeke’s company, Orijitech, in order to drive more security-related engineering around the Cosmos SDK. Emmanuel has worked in the Cosmos ecosystem since very early on, originally as a contributor to the Cosmos SDK. He is also a contributor to the Golang programming language itself! He’ll be working closely with the IBC team at Interchain GmbH and the Cosmos SDK team at Regen Network to do various security-related tests and improvements across the codebase.Hackathon V ConcludesTwo weeks ago marked the end of Hackatom V, the fifth flagship Cosmos hackathon that ran online from Oct 16th-30th. There were 11 workshops leading up to the deadline, including “Building a cross-chain Application on top of IBC” from IBC core developer Aditya Sripal and “Using Cosmovisor for Automated Software Upgrades” from Tendermint Inc. engineer Sahith Narahari. The finalists presented their work to judges on Nov 4th and winners were announced on Nov 9th. We saw a great batch of cutting edge projects, including multi-collateral market makers with integrated staking tokens called Osmosis and an implementation of Bitcoin Vaults with covenants written in CosmWasm called Clawbacks.Take a look at the summary of all winners at “Congratulations to the winners of Hackatom”!ICF Joins Future of Cosmos BroadcastLast week Foundation Council Vice President and Informal Systems CEO, Ethan Buchman, and Board of Management Grants Manager, Billy Rennekamp, joined Josh Lee of Tendermint Inc. and Chainapsis for an episode of Future of Cosmos. They discussed the past, present and future of the Interchain Foundation, the Cosmos Network and the Internet of Blockchains at large.Tune in to hear about all of that as well as cryptofarms!UX Working Group Making Quick ProgressThe UX Working Group hosted a second successful call about the future of user experience within an Internet of Blockchans. This call focused on interim solutions to providing seed nodes, genesis files, and roots of trust for various Cosmos SDK blockchains. The goal was finding a solution that could be used today, but also designed in a way so that it is transparent and can be eventually migrated to a fully decentralized version. Jack Zampolin made quick work of generating a MVP that can be seen here. The codebase will allow anyone to register a chain with enough relevant information that CI jobs can regularly generate the roots of trust needed for light clients and full nodes to perform fast sync.Join for the next call on Monday, November 23rd at 3pm UTC and join the Telegram for further coordination.Thanks for catching up on our sixth update. We’ll be working on the format to keep it brief but informative. If there are things you’d like to hear more about, feel free to reach out to or ping us on Twitter at @interchain_io.If you’re interested in applying for funding, take a look at our process, our request for proposals and submit at by February 14th for consideration in Q1 of 2021.See you in 2 weeks!ICF Update — Nov 17th was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 17

Introducing Cosmos Jobs Board

Discover how Interchain Foundation intends to support the Internet of People in addition to the Internet of Blockchains.Try Cosmos Jobs Now!As we well know, the goal of Cosmos Network since its birth has always been to become the “Internet of Blockchains”, thus bringing in the crypto industry the missing piece for true mass adoption.While our ecosystem’s Core Teams are realizing this incredible goal with the final tests to the Stargate and Big Bang testnets, Interchain Foundation has certainly not been idle and has decided to provide people with a platform that has the function that Cosmos Hub has in its IBC dream.❓How, you may be wondering.Well, Interchain Foundation, thanks to the brilliant work done by Promise Protocol, has created a recruitment-specific platform named Cosmos Jobs.This board, which will not be dedicated exclusively to Cosmos Network but open to contributors from every part of the crypto-universe, aims to be a reference point for each team within the Cosmos Ecosystem and beyond.Hurry up and apply for the jobs — teams can’t wait to meet you!Interchain Foundation, which has always been as attentive to human resources as it is to technology, has decided to invest in improving communication and recruiting experience in the blockchain universe, offering free of charge the ideal meeting point for companies, industry experts, and people approaching it for the first time.🔍 To be more detailed, on Cosmos Jobs you will find these sections:Find JobsA list of all the open positions made by companies operating in the Cosmos ecosystem and not moreBrowse ProjectsA brief overview of the projects and companies that are part of the Cosmos ecosystem.Browse ContributorsTo authenticate themselves, some contributors to the Cosmos ecosystem are invited to create their own personal profile on the platform. The same suggestion is directed to resources seeking employment. In this section, you can find a list of registered contributors.Create a Contributor ProfileDo you want to be noticed by companies? Tell us about yourself by creating your personal profile!Create a Project ProfileYour project/company is not on our list? Create it in 5 minutes!Employers: Post a jobDoes your team have an open position? Great! Fill in the form and publish it on our website: we will help you to meet the profile you are looking for!👩🏻‍🚀👨🏽‍🚀 Cosmos Jobs will benefit from constant support so that users will be able to express themselves in the best possible way and establish the best collaborations.This includes a step-by-step guide, staff at your disposal, highlights in our newly born dedicated Twitter account (@JobsCosmos), and the security that each job offer or profile created has been reviewed to ensure its authenticity.You are working to make the world a safer and fairer place, we at Interchain Foundation support you in this path by providing you with all the tools necessary to fully achieve these goals.Together, Nothing is Impossible.🚀 See you onboard!Interchain FoundationThis platform was built by Promise Protocol with Interchain Foundation’s SponsorshipAbout Promise ProtocolFor global businesses that want to conduct confidential, cross-border, business transactions, Promise delivers a new type of credit cryptography with prox re-signatures. This network is designed with credit and payment automation features with proxy re-signing cryptography not available on any other chain today.Promise Protocol is very active in the Cosmos Community as one of the leading players in the UniFi DAO and ATOM2021 initiatives.About Interchain FoundationICF believes that open-source, cryptographic, consensus-driven, economic networks hold the key to an anti-fragile global economic system and equal opportunity for all.Their mandate is to research, develop, and promote open, decentralized, network technologies like Cosmos, that provide greater sovereignty, security, and sustainability to the world’s communities.Do not forget that the submissions for Q4 grants are now open and our Grant Manager, Billy Rennekamp, is looking forward to review and support projects that will soon bring new and inestimable value to Cosmos Network.Apply Now!Introducing Cosmos Jobs Board was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 11

Congratulations to the winn...

Congratulations to the Winners of HackAtom VHackAtom V has come to an end. What an exciting journey we had!HackAtom V was the fifth edition of the Cosmos HackAtom series that we started back in 2017, right after the Cosmos public fundraiser. Unlike all the other in-person events, this hackathon was our first exclusively virtual event of its kind. Over 340 participants from across the globe hacked remotely for two weeks. Teams utilized bleeding-edge technology such as the Cosmos SDK, IBC, Starport, Ethermint, CosmWasm, Agoric, and more from the Cosmos ecosystem, and have succeeded in building some amazing projects.We want to thank the participating teams for taking the time to work on great projects and the judges, mentors, and the organizing team at Tendermint for putting together such an exciting and amazing event.Time to meet the winners! 🥳Gringotts Award: Best DeFi app using Cosmos SDK1st Place: 🥇 Osmosis 🥇Osmosis is an on-chain generalized multi-token automated market maker and a self-balancing weighted portfolio built on the Cosmos SDK.Devpost: https://c-osmosis.com2nd Place: 🥈 Quasar 🥈Quasar is a lending/borrowing protocol in the form of CosmWasm contracts.Devpost: Place: 🥉 NFT Marketplace 🥉An NFT Marketplace on the blockchain for fungible and non-fungible tokens.Devpost: Award: Most creative dAppchain using the Cosmos SDK and/or Tendermint1st Place: 🥇 NFT Marketplace 🥇An NFT Marketplace on the blockchain for fungible and non-fungible tokens.Devpost: Place: 🥈 Flares 🥈A payment network that supports multiple assets and multiple payment scenarios, such as games, dapps, DEX, DeFi, etc.Devpost: Place: 🥉 API Kit 🥉A module that allows interactions with arbitrary APIs from your Cosmos app using a prebuilt Cosmos Hub module.Devpost: Award: Best Go-to-Market module for the Cosmos Hub1st Place: 🥇 Clawback Account 🥇Clawback Account with DeFi use cases such as wallet management and cashback reward adjustments.Devpost: Place: 🥈 Cosmos-DID 🥈Decentralized Identifiers (DID) spec built on the Cosmos SDK using Starport.Devpost: Place: 🥉 Sophon 🥉Smart contract built on CosmWasm that optimizes staking operations.Devpost: Award: Best Use of Cosmos to Provide Cosmos-Ethereum Interoperability with Peggy, Ethermint, or the Cosmos SDK1st Place: 🥇 Sampark 🥇Sampark is a platform where users can endorse connections using images to showcase their work, memes, anger, or other cool images.Devpost: Place: 🥈 Affondra 🥈Affondra is a blockchain application where users can sell their NFTs and earn affiliate rewards on a peer to peer marketplace.Devpost: Choice AwardIn addition to having judges assess and select winners, we have also opened voting to the community for the Community Choice Award.🎖 King of Cards🎖King of Cards is a card game on the blockchain where users can design and sell cards.Devpost:🎉 Congratulations to all winners!Special ThanksHackAtom V would not have been possible without the help from numerous people and teams in our ecosystem.A huge shoutout goes to the workshop creators, from teams like Regen Network, Tendermint, Agoric, Confio, IrisNet, Commercio, Persistence, and Interchain GmBH that have worked hard to demo and introduce Cosmos to a live, worldwide audience via workshops during HackAtom V.Check out the workshops and demos from #HackAtomV on YouTube.Our amazing team of mentors worked around the clock to assist everyone in developing and polishing their projects. They were present day-in-day-out on our #HackAtomV Discord channel, which made it feel like a live, in-person event. Mentors came from teams such as Chainsafe, Dokia Capital, Interchain Foundation, Tendermint, Paradigm, Informal, ShapeShift, 1confirmation, Interchain GmbH, Forbole, FreeFlix & CoCo, Persistence, Figment, Akash, Iqlusion, Confio, Regen Network, Commercio, IrisNet, Persistence, and Agoric.We want to thank our judges, who took the time to carefully examine each submission, review the code, and assess the category in which these projects would fit best:Nick Tomaino, Founder/GP of 1ConfirmationErik Voorhees, a top serial Bitcoin advocate/entrepreneur, Founder of ShapeShiftBilly Rennekamp, Grants Manager at Interchain FoundationAurel Iancu, CEO at Dokia CapitalCharlie Noyes, Partner at Paradigm FundBrent Xu, Senior Manager of Strategic Partnerships at TendermintAidan Hyman, Co-founder & CEO at ChainSafe SystemsEthan Buchman, CEO at Informal Systems, Co-founder of Cosmos & Tendermint & VP at Interchain FoundationThere were also internal teams at Tendermint who worked hard behind the scenes to make this event possible, which consisted of efforts from the Engineering, Operations, Marketing, and Design teams. Tendermint was responsible for deploying the hubs, building the tools and infrastructure, designing the website, promoting HackAtom, and organizing the event by coordinating with each of the stakeholders.Last but not least, a big thank you goes out to the Interchain Foundation for generously sponsoring the prizes of HackAtom V.We hope that the participating teams will continue working on the projects that they have started during this HackAtom event, and that we’ll meet again in Cosmos! Stay tuned for more HackAtom V news, including a Winners’ Spotlight blog post.There’s only one destination! To the Cosmos! 🚀Congratulations to the winners of HackAtom V was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 09

Five Reasons Why Cosmos Val...

SummaryNow that the Cosmos Stargate Release Candidate is at the RC-3, the next step will be to launch a Cosmos Stargate simulated upgrade of the Cosmos Hub with current ATOM validators participating. If you’re a Cosmos Hub validator, there are five key reasons why this simulated upgrade is one that you won’t want to miss. Afterwards, as soon as a final commit hash is available from the dev team, we’ll submit a proposal to upgrade the Hub .TimelineWe aim to have this network live by Nov 11th . We are not restricting the genesis time so once we have quorum the network will go live.If we fail to reach quorum by Nov 12 midnight UTC, we will publish an updated genesis file with additional public key rotations.Sidenote: Public key rotation for network recovery is now built into gaia.Hub ProposalThe Cosmos Hub Stargate testnet is the next stage in the testnet process. As we learned from the cosmoshub-2 to cosmoshub-3 process, the migration process of state from one blockchain to another carries it’s own risks that the validator community should evaluate.We are doing some new things in this upgrade.The migration code is all built into gaia.We are starting the new chain from height +1 of the previous chain.We are conducting the fund recovery operation from prop29 in this migration process. This is implemented in gaia as well.We aim to create a decentralized testnet version of the Cosmos Hub. As part of our initial proposal to the Hub for the Stargate upgrade, we promised this step as necessary to simulate the required upgrade to the Cosmos Stargate version. Successful completion of this step will be a precursor to our completion of the first Cosmos Stargate proposal.IBC simulationCosmos’ flagship, the Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol, will be deployed with the Stargate update. IBC on Cosmos Stargate will enable other Cosmos blockchains to exchange the value of digital assets (tokens) and data with one another and the Cosmos Hub, whether they’re public or private blockchains. Simulating IBC deployment and completing a demonstration IBC will be critical to demonstrating to validators that IBC is ready for the Cosmos Hub. The IBC simulation will include the creation and sending of Cosmos Hub assets using IBC features.Exchange partners that are seeking to confirm minimum IBC readiness with Cosmos Stargate will want to participate in the simulated migration to confirm that they are able to understand how their nodes will be able to accept non-ATOM assets from the Cosmos Hub. Exchanges have already made IBC readiness an important part of their upgrade to Cosmos Stargate. More of their readiness descriptions can be found in our Cosmos IBC Skills Matrix designed in coordination with the leading cryptocurrency exchanges that trade ATOM.Governance ProposalsThe simulation will also build experience around the governance process with Cosmos Stargate. We will shorten voting periods and quorum requirements because we don’t expect anyone other than command line users to be able to participate.We will test activating ICS-20 transfers via a parameter change proposal and then the creation of new assets on the Hub after the proposal. We will also make a software upgrade proposal to give participants more experience with cosmovisor.Cosmovisor DemoCosmos upgrade manager, now named Cosmovisor, will be deployed for testing on the Cosmos Hub Stargate testnet. Deploying Cosmovisor will demonstrate the new capability for non-halt chain upgrades on the Cosmos Hub mainnet. Cosmovisor is the upgrade module that allows for smooth and configurable management of upgrading binaries as a live chain is upgraded, and can be used to simplify validator devops while doing upgrades or to make syncing a full node for genesis simple. Cosmovisor will increase validator confidence in upgrading their nodes safely. If you’re not familiar with Cosmovisor, you can read about it here. Cosmovisor comes with a series of features that allows validator administrators to enjoy lower devops administration overhead of their servers. A video demonstration of Cosmovisor is also available here. Cosmos Hub Upgrade proposalWe have a draft Cosmos Hub governance proposal for the main hub upgrade in Github. Validators should use this testnet as a tool for evaluating the governance proposal.The case we are making to the Cosmos Hub validators is that the cosmoshub-test-stargate release of Gaia is substantially similar to the final gaia v3.0Stargate release.The remaining changes are related to an internal audit of IBC 1.0 conducted by the Informal and Interchain Berlin teams that have previously surfaced some things worth fixing before we take Stargate live.How to participateValidators can start participation today with the following three steps:Download and build the cosmoshub-test-stargate tag on Gaia 3.0.Setup a Cosmos Stargate node with the genesis file located here.Setup your private keys that were used to generate your replacement keys.Install the binaries and genesis file onto your Cosmos Hub Stargate Testnet node server.Start your node with gaiad start which conducts an extensive audit of genesis file consistency and soundness that takes about an hour. Alternatively use gaiad start --x-crisis-invariants which skips the audit and takes about 10 min to start up.We are running a seed node at c5e186e29d322788b8154723d04e1de018d38475@ the MigrationWe have a snapshot of a gaiad cosmoshub-3 state. This needs to be unzipped into .gaiad/config/dataUsing gaia v2.0.*, gaiad export > 3924406.cosmoshub-3.jsonThe migration command with gaia v3.0 is:gaiad migrate ~/3924406.cosmoshub-3.json --chain-id=cosmoshub-test-stargate --initial-height=3924407 --replacement-cons-keys ~/iqlusion_work/stargate/validator_replacement.json > exported_genesis.jsonThen pretty printed with jq . exported_genesis.json > genesis.jsonThe replacements key are from quorum and voting period parameters were hand edited for the testnet.Sha256sum of the genesis is b1b51ff6b04b3b3e1df56af99d175c80add9c82c027cad5edfc5d252cd30d042ConclusionThe Cosmos Hub Stargate testnet simulation is the final step before we propose an upgrade to the Cosmos Hub. The simulation will allow for testing of new features that include Cosmovisor for non-halt upgrades, Statesync for fast chain sync and IBC for asset creation and transmission on the Cosmos Hub. We will be deploying a gaia release based on SDK v0.40.0-rc3. Validators should check for the release. We will reach out to validators as well or you may open an issue on github here or contact us in the Cosmos Stargate discord channel.Five Reasons Why Cosmos Validators Want to Participate in the Stargate Simulated Upgrade was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 09

Ethermint Supports Web3 Per...

BackgroundChainSafe is happy to announce that we have completed another deliverable from our current grant from the ICF to bring Ethermint into production as a full Cosmos chain. We wanted to take the opportunity to explain our work on the Web3 Personal API and why implementing it in Ethermint is so important to maintain feature parity with Geth. If you would like more context on Ethermint before diving in, check out this article.Our WorkIn Ethereum, the personal API manages private keys in the keystore. We needed to implement this functionality on Ethermint so that Ethereum keys and signing would all be compatible. To do this, our team implemented the following functionality in Ethermint:personal_importRawKeypersonal_listAccountspersonal_lockAccountpersonal_newAccountpersonal_unlockAccountpersonal_sendTransactionpersonal_signpersonal_ecRecoverFor the full specification that we were targeting, see the Geth Personal Namespace documentation.You can also check the personal namespace methods on the Ethermint JSON-RPC docs.Challenges and LessonsSince the Cosmos-SDK’s keyring doesn’t explicitly support locking and unlocking of keys the way Ethereum does, a workaround had to be implemented. Unlocking a key is done by exporting it from the Cosmos keyring via decrypting the file and storing it in memory. Locking the key deletes it from memory, leaving it only as an encrypted file on-disk. This work around is quite effective, the only functionality that is missing is unlocking a key for a certain duration of time. Although this is a fairly minor feature, we would still like to see it implemented in a fully productionized Ethermint Zone.A long term solution could be to work with the core SDK team and propose an ADR to implement these changes on the Keyring.Why it is ImportantWhile some of the personal API functionalities are already available from the Cosmos keys implementation, such as adding a new account and signing and sending transactions, the personal API adds compatibility of these features with the Ethereum Web3 API. This milestone also introduces additional features that are not available on other Cosmos chains such as locking and unlocking accounts.Final DeliverablesThe final pre-testnet deliverables of the grant will be upgrading Ethermint to the Cosmos SDK v0.40 (stargate release) and integrating IBC, the protocol for interoperability between chains. Beyond these, the remaining deliverables are launching a community focused initial testnet, launching an incentivized testnet, the “Game of Ethermint Zones”, and productionizing Ethermint into a full Cosmos Zone.The team is working full speed ahead and looks forward to tackling these goals to bring a fully productionized Ethermint to the public!Get InvolvedIf you are interested in getting involved and contributing to the project, check out our Github. If you are already building or intend to start would like to building your project on Ethermint, become a validator, or collaborate with the project in any other way, please get in contact with one of our Ethermint team members on Chainsafe’s Discord, Cosmos’s Discord under #Ethermint channel or email We would love to know more about you, your team and your project!In order to make sure we stay connected with our community, we are planning on hosting our first community calls in the upcoming weeks to discuss the project, dig deeper into the current development, give periodic updates on the future roadmap and answer questions. Be on the lookout for upcoming announcements by following the Ethermint, ChainSafe and Cosmos twitter and the Cosmos and Chainsafe blogs.Ethermint Supports Web3 Personal API was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 06

ICF Update — Nov 3rd

ICF Update — Nov 3rdQ3 Funded Proposals; UX Working Group; Cosmos Conversations; ICF Invests in ixo; ICF Sponsors ZKSummit; Confio Launches CosmWasm Dapp Examples; Chainsafe Completes New Milestones on Ethermint; Informal Systems Extends Service Agreement to Include Proposer Based Timestamps and Tendermint P2P in Rust; Eventivize Launches the First Token Drop Event;Welcome to the fifth edition of our bi-weekly update! We’ll be using this space to highlight some of the exciting activities that took place at the Interchain Foundation over the last two weeks. This will include some check-in meetings that occurred with various funding recipients, as well as goings-on that members of the Interchain ecosystem might find interesting and informative.If any of the updates are especially relevant to what you are working on feel free to drop us a line at you missed the last update, check it out at ICF Update — Oct 20th.Q3 Funded ProposalsOur third quarter of funding proposals closed submissions on August 31st. We spent another month reviewing the applications internally, compiling the proposals that the Board of Management decided to recommend and including comments from the Technical Advisory Board. From there the Foundation Council was able to come to consensus on what projects to fund and the time spent since then was on finalizing service agreements and getting all the proper signatures. The following proposals have now been formalized and work has begun by the respective teams.Take a look at the respective recipients here.UX Working GroupLast week was the first UX Working Group call attended by members from the ICF, WalletConnect, Starname, ApeUnit and Chainapsis. The topic of conversation was about the group itself and how it should function going forward as well as how to think about multi-chain assets that originate on one chain but have been moved via IBC or custom bridges. The group has decided to utilize the Chain Agnostic Improvement Process to extend CAIP-19, a standard for representing blockchain assets that includes reference to their origin chain, in order to accommodate multi-chain assets. Follow the conversation on the github issue and join the next call on November 13th, 3pm CET.Join the Telegram group to stay up to date!Cosmos Conversations Online Event AnnouncedLast week was the announcement of the second annual flagship Cosmos conference: Interchain Conversations. It’s being co-organized with Dystopia Labs (Hsin-Ju) and will happen online December 12th and 13th. Tickets are Free and available at Invests in ixoixo, the Internet of Impact, has received two service agreements from the Interchain Foundation. The first completed agreement was to implement bonding curves and automatic market maker capabilities within the Cosmos SDK in a software suite called Alphabonds with support from Simply VC. The second agreement is in partnership with Persistence One to design and implement the NFT and corresponding Metadata modules. This work is ongoing and coordinated around and the NFT Working Group. Based on the successful collaborations between ixo and the Interchain Foundation and the alignment of social impact with the mandate of the foundation for the success of the Cosmos Network we have proceeded with an investment into the ixo network. We look forward to seeing the project continue to succeed and the benefit for the wider Cosmos ecosystem as well as the world at large.ICF Sponsors ZKSummitZKSummit, the annual conference organized by Anna Rose and the Zero Knowledge Podcast will run November 23rd and 24th. The Interchain Foundation is excited to support the conference as an important event in the pursuit of education on the important developments around cryptography and privacy.Confio Launches CosmWasm Dapp ExamplesConfio, the team building WASM based smart contract module and platform CosmWasm, recently launched a platform of dapps at to demonstrate some capabilities of their platform. These include a working example of Staking Derivatives as well as fungible tokens and an implementation of a nameservice.Chainsafe Completes New Milestones on EthermintChainSafe Systems, developers of the Ethermint EVM Cosmos SDK module, recently completed new milestones on their service agreement to develop the module. These include completion of the `eth_personal` RPC endpoint that enables parity with Go Ethereum in creating and managing accounts as well as signing transactions using traditional Ethereum user flows. This will supplement the capabilities of creating and managing accounts, signing and sending transactions that come out of the box with the Cosmos SDK. Take a look for more details at their recently published blog article.Informal Systems Extends Service Agreement to Include Proposer Based Timestamps and Tendermint P2P in RustInformal Systems, the team building Tendermint and IBC in Rust and researching and developing techniques in formal verification has extended their service agreement with the Interchain Foundation. The extension covers work on implementing proposer based timestamps within Tendermint that will allow faster block production and BLS signature aggregation. It will also include an implementation of the Tendermint peer-to-peer communication system in Rust that will allow a performant and robust implementation to serve as a canonical version for other programming environments.Eventivize Launches the First Token Drop EventHalloween night was the first live implementation of the new Eventivize platform. Building up to the 2021 CTM Music Festival is a series of events, the first of which ran at and was successfully completed over the weekend. This included a token drop on a mobile app and broadcast on that allowed viewers to distribute tokens to different performers throughout the event. These tokens were exchanged for fiat by the event organizers and allows fans to have a direct impact on financial empowerment of the artists performing.Thanks for catching up on our fifth update. We’ll be working on the format to keep it brief but informative. If there are things you’d like to hear more about feel free to reach out to or ping us on Twitter at @interchain_io.See you in 2 weeks!ICF Update — Nov 3rd was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 03

The Road to Ethermint

What is EthermintEthermint is an implementation of the EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine), built using the Cosmos SDK, that runs on top of Tendermint Core’s BFT Proof-of-Stake consensus engine. The software enables users to deploy any Ethereum compatible code and immediately enjoy PoS consensus and instant finality with little to no overhead. In this way, Ethermint is a fully integrated part of the Cosmos ecosystem but is also fully compatible with the EVM!Why is Ethermint important?Despite the proliferation of many new smart contract platforms as well as multi-blockchain ecosystems such as Cosmos, Ethereum still has by far the largest community base of users and developers in the blockchain space. Although Ethereum is an extremely important part of the blockchain ecosystem, it is a massive, multipurpose platform. This has imposed several limitations for developers on Ethereum, especially in terms of scalability, gas price and the ability to customize for a project’s desired functionality. By leveraging Tendermint Consensus, Ethermint provides instant finality and enables developers to enjoy higher throughput, lower gas prices and a more modular framework that is easier to customize to bespoke use cases. Ethermint delivers these compelling features in a way that is completely familiar to Ethereum developers and users.By delivering the EVM as a Cosmos SDK module, Ethermint can support any smart contracts, DAOs or Dapps deployed on Ethereum out of the box. This means that instant finality PoS consensus is available right now for anyone who wants to use it! In this way, Ethermint leverages the massive community of Ethereum developers and the improved throughput, reduced gas cost and higher modularity of Cosmos, to deliver the best of both ecosystems. We hope the reader can appreciate the magnitude of what this represents for the blockchain space. The potential use cases are endless. Don’t take our word for it though. Check out the codebase and see what you can do with this amazing project!ChainSafe and EthermintFirst GrantIn 2019, ChainSafe Systems received an initial grant from Interchain Foundation to continue building out the functionality of Ethermint and bring it closer to a state of production readiness. The work for this first grant was completed by the end of 2019. During the course of this initial grant, ChainSafe built a working implementation of Ethermint that behaves as mainnet Ethereum does with some limitations. The work included:An implementation of the EVM as a Cosmos-SDK module.An implementation of Ethereum transactions in the Cosmos-SDK.An implementation of the Web3 compatible API layer.At this point, Ethermint was nearing total feature parity with the EVM but was not quite there yet. Furthermore, the project had still not launched a testnet, nor had it been tested for interoperability with other parts of the Cosmos ecosystem.Second GrantIn June of this year, ChainSafe received a second grant to finish the work that we started and build out Ethermint into a battle tested, production ready, Cosmos Zone. The deliverables of the current grant are as follows:Benchmark Web3 API and EVM module against Geth.Implement a Web3 personal API to allow for keygen and account management that is familiar to Ethereum users and developers.Implement a way to handle pending state queries through the Web3 API.Set up a public Ethermint testnet.Support IBCEstablish a final testing period by setting up a “game of Ethermint.” This will be a 4–6 week long testnet that will incentivise users to test the Zone in anticipation of the transition to mainnet.Current StatusChainSafe is currently wrapping up work on all of the pre-testnet deliverables outlined above. We have run an initial benchmark on Ethermint which yielded some impressive results. We have finished work on the Web3 Personal API and will release an article on this work shortly. We are also nearly done implementing pending state queries and plan to have this included in our next release. The Ethermint team is also working on upgrading the SDK to Stargate, its largest and most important update since Cosmos went live! The upgrade to Stargate will include some initial support for IBC, although we will continue to expand Ethermint’s interoperability beyond this initial implementation. We expect this work to be done in the next 4 to 6 weeks. Work on Stargate may take longer depending on the other stakeholders. After Stargate is fully tested and integrated into the Ethermint codebase, we will run a follow up benchmarking process in order to capture the significant performance upgrades that Stargate provides. Once these are complete, we will publish the results of both benchmarks along with a brief analysis.Next StepsWe expect to complete the pending state query deliverable as well as the upgrade to Stargate and the subsequent benchmarking in the next 4 to 6 weeks. Once the pending state work is merged, we will refactor the codebase, improve our documentation and launch Ethermint’s first public testnet! Expect us to announce an exact date in the next few weeks. We plan for this first testnet to run for approximately 1 month.In Q1 of 2021, ChainSafe plans to launch an incentivized testnet, the “Game of Ethermint”. This will be the last major milestone before mainnet launch. We will run the “Game of Ethermint” for a long as it takes to be certain that the network is completely secure and everything runs exactly as it should. At this point we will announce the Ethermint genesis event and then launch Ethermint as a fully productionized Cosmos Zone.The details of the token economics and distribution for Ethermint are still under discussion but we will be sure to let the community know as soon as a plan has been finalized.Get InvolvedIf you are interested in getting involved and contributing to the project, check out our Github. If you are already building or intend to start building your project on Ethermint, become a validator, or collaborate with the project in any other way, please get in contact with one of our Ethermint team members on Chainsafe’s Discord, Cosmos’s Discord under #Ethermint channel or email We would love to know more about you, your team and your project!In order to make sure we stay connected with our community, we are planning on hosting our first community calls in the upcoming weeks to discuss the project, dig deeper into the current development, give periodic updates on the future roadmap and answer questions. Be on the lookout for upcoming announcements by following the Ethermint, ChainSafe and Cosmos twitter and the Cosmos and Chainsafe blogs.In order to make sure we stay connected with our community, we are planning on hosting our first community calls in the upcoming weeks to discuss the project, dig deeper into the current development, give periodic updates on the future roadmap and answer questions. Be on the lookout for upcoming announcements by following the Ethermint, ChainSafe and Cosmos twitter and the Cosmos and Chainsafe blogs.The Road to Ethermint was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 03

ICF Q3–2020 Funding Recipients

Our third quarter of funding proposals closed submissions on August 31st. This is the second time this new process has been followed since the update earlier this year. We spent another month reviewing the applications internally, compiling the proposals that the Board of Management decided to recommend. These were included with comments from the Technical Advisory Board and submitted to the Foundation Council for approval. The time spent since then was on finalizing service agreements and getting the required signatures.The following proposals have now been finalized and work has begun by the respective teams. This comes in tandem with another Q3 Financial Transparency Report. Applications for Q4 closed on October 31st in order to give time during the holidays to review all submissions. To apply for Q1 2021 please submit applications by February 14th at Wallet — ChainapsisChainapsis, recipients of a previous service agreement to develop IBC Interchain Accounts, has received another service agreement to continue development on their open source wallet and browser extension, Keplr. Chainapsis is committed to implementing Keplr on several fronts: supporting more projects, further integrating the smart contracting platform CosmWasm and WalletConnect, and finally supporting an embeddable popup modal that allows dapp developers to choose which wallet to sign transactions with.We’re very excited about the progress Chainapsis has been making and seeing them lead the way in open source wallet development.Multi-Chain WalletConnectWalletConnect is a protocol for securely communicating between applications and wallet signing solutions that utilizes a decentralized p2p network called Vac. It is the most popular wallet transport solution in the Ethereum space and the core contributor, Pedro Gomes, has spent the last year working on multi-chain standards as part of the Chain Agnostic Improvement Proposals that enable Wallet Connect to work within an Internet of Blockchains. This extension to the protocol enables multi-chain support, including Polkadot Network, and as such is being co-funded with Web3 Foundation.Quicksync — ChainlayerSyncing Cosmos sentries and validators can take a long time. Quicksync from Chainlayer, solves that issue by providing daily downloadable snapshots at great download speed. This service agreement will ensure that Cosmos snapshots remain available and easy to access.Governance Working Group — Gavin BirchGavin Birch has shepherded the Governance Working Group since making the first successfully funded community spend proposal to improve the legibility of Cosmos Hub Governance. Grassroots efforts that increase the social coordination capacity of on-chain organizations are crucial for realizing a self-sufficient Cosmos ecosystem, however there are still significant gaps to fill before on-chain funding and protocol development becomes the norm.This grant aims to help the Governance Working Group bootstrap a community working group model that catalyzes the emergence of more on-chain funding, development, and standards- development entities and. Gavin will be hosting regular meetings, inviting key voices like Regen, SimplyVC, UniFi DAO, Peggy JV and others to co-develop working group governance processes, soliciting feedback from the community on norms and best practices, and discuss how to leverage upcoming technologies like Regen’s groups module that can improve on-chain coordination. Gavin will also be documenting these governances in the Cosmos Hub docs and the new governance github repo.Cosmos SDK Time Bank — Hong Kong Impact Data ConsortiumThe Hong Kong Impact Data Consortium is a socially-conscious and civic-minded community that brings together people and resources with data, takes action to solve Hong Kong’s most pressing issues, and advocates for a new paradigm of bottom-up crowd-solutions for poverty alleviation and social inclusion. This funding proposal is to develop P2P economics for low-income Asian communities, helping them to achieve self-determinism & economic resilience through programmable results-based-finance & collateralized community currencies, to grow sustainable forms of local economy. This will take shape as a digitalization of a currently running time bank program using the Cosmos SDK and begin adding capabilities for Community Inclusion Currency issuance with a linked fractional reserve currency pool.Map of Zones — ZtakeDuring the adversarial IBC enabled test network Game of Zones, participants, ztake and Bitquasar, created a beautiful visualizer for all the interconnected networks called Map of Zones. This service agreement is to continue development on the visualizer in preparation for the live IBC launch as part of the Stargate network upgrade.Cross Chain Validation Masters Thesis — EPFLThis funding proposal is for Jovan Komatovic, a second year doctoral student at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), to research and produce an academic paper on cross-chain validation under the guidance of Rachid Guerraoui. The project is devoted to formally defining the cross-chain validation problem that aims to allow securing new chains in the system by reusing the trust in some highly secure chains, determining which system models allow solving the problem, and developing a concrete algorithm.Celo Bridge — Chorus OneIn coordination with the Celo Foundation, Chorus One will begin building a bridge between Celo and the Cosmos Hub. This work is split between a service agreement with Celo Foundation and the Interchain Foundation. The agreement with us will cover a WASM-based light client for the Celo consensus that will allow Celo transactions to be verified on the Cosmos Hub in order to utilize IBC. On the Celo side, work will go towards creating access to a tendermint light client via an EVM precompile. This will allow IBC packets to eventually be verified within Celo smart contracts.Keep an eye out for more regular updates from the Interchain Foundation as more funding recipients are announced as part of Q4 2020 🚀ICF Q3–2020 Funding Recipients was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 03

Q3 Interchain Foundation As...

The Interchain Foundation (ICF) is delighted to announce the publication of key financial figures and funding activity for the first half of 2020 and in the future on a quarterly basis. The Foundation maintains a very professional and conservative asset management approach which ensures sustainable capital deployment for the Cosmos project for many more years to come. In order to achieve the Foundation’s mission, safeguarding the Foundation’s assets and providing operational liquidity is essential and it is closely and constantly monitored by the Foundation Council.Since its inception in 2017, the ICF has been subject to full financial audits and is happy to announce that during all reporting periods unqualified audit reports have been received by an independent auditor. As required by Swiss law, the audit reports are filed with the Swiss Federal Supervisory Authority for Foundations. The ICF is fully compliant with all regulations and requirements.The below is the first update for the period of 30 June through 31 September 2020.Here are the highlights:Total assets as per Q3 2020 add up to USD 168 millionHoldings denominated in Cosmos Atom tokens represent 58% of total assets, respectively 76% of Crypto holdings.Investments include public securities and also crypto investments such as ixo, Regen, Agoric, Althea and Iris.Number of grant applications received during Q3, 2020: 49Number of grants approved during Q3, 2020: 18Grants committed during Q3, 2020: USD 1.4 millionQ3 Interchain Foundation Assets and Funding Overview was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 11. 03

Why Do We Test Cosmos Starg...

When anyone says that a software release contains “breaking changes” it often means that some behavior has changed without a full understanding of the changes. However, even if engineers conduct thorough testing, there’s always a risk that a bug is lurking deep beneath. Getting a handle on these types of bugs is the goal of the simulations test. Below we share a little bit of why we run simulations at Tendermint.As blockchain protocols grow in complexity due to speed and interchain interaction requirements, we need to ship software that will break compatibility with prior features. Breaking changes are common in software development. However, when we speak of value transfer systems involving cryptocurrency, breaking changes are liable to have impacts unseen until a substantial amount of transactions complete. Since transaction volume increases over time, it’s very difficult to test for these hidden issues with simple integration testing procedures.An informative simulation test of Stargate requires that we run a version of the protocol for several thousand blocks. Subtle errors that could exist in the decimal number implementation, fee calculation, or state machine transitions can be detected by generating and sending randomized messages. The goal of simulations is to detect failures that could halt a chain and provide as much detail as possible, such as log files and the application state at which a failure occurred.Source: Cosmos Stargate server simulation logsIn the long term, this can reduce software breakage by running the Cosmos protocol and observing unique issues we may not have predicted. We want to continuously raise the bar for testing all of our code so that it is as exhaustive as possible. Exhaustive testing should lead to faster and more confident upgrades to the Cosmos Hub.If you are interested in learning more about the simulator and the simulation tools we use, check the Github repository that hosts runsim’s source code, the Cosmos SDK documentation and continue to check our Stargate updates here: Do We Test Cosmos Stargate with Software Simulations? was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 10. 21

ICF Update — Oct 20th

ICF Update — Oct 20th18 Cosmos GitHub Org Teams; Hackathon Underway; Chorus One, Web3, IBC & CosmWasm; Stargate, Big Bang & Cosmos SDK Release Candidate; Bug Bounty Rewards DoubledWelcome to the fourth edition of our bi-weekly update! We’ll be using this space to highlight some of the exciting activities that took place at the Interchain Foundation over the last two weeks. This will include some check-in meetings that occurred with various funding recipients, as well as goings-on that members of the Interchain ecosystem might find interesting and informative.If any of the updates are especially relevant to what you are working on feel free to drop us a line at you missed the last update, check it out at ICF Update — Oct 6.18 Cosmos Org GitHub TeamsEarlier this year All in Bits (dba Tendermint Inc) transferred ownership of the Cosmos github organization to the ICF. Since there are so many different contributors at this point it made more sense to coordinate permissions from the ICF level. A proposal to utilize github teams was created in order to make sure everyone had the proper access to the code they contribute to and after being agreed upon by all stakeholders it has finally been implemented. There are now 18 teams within the Cosmos org who contribute to or maintain various repositories. These include Agoric, Akash, All in Bits, Althea, ChainSafe, Confio, Fission, Informal, Interchain, Iqlusion, Iris, Lunie, Promise, Regen, Sikka, SnowFork, Vitwit and Zondax. We look forward to leveraging the collaborative tools we have to share responsibilities across a distributed network of contributors.Hackathon UnderwayThe fifth Cosmos Hackatom kicked off last Friday and runs until Friday October 30th. There have already been various workshops during the hackathon and will continue to be designated mentor hours where developers will be available in the Cosmos Hackatom discord channel. There’s a total of $50,000 in prizes in various categories. Keep an eye out for ICF judges Ethan Buchman and Billy Rennekamp.Chorus One IBC & WasmChorus One finalized a service agreement with the ICF that includes work on augmenting the Cosmos SDK IBC implementation with capabilities via the CosmWasm module. This will allow IBC connections to be updated without inducing a network upgrade. This will help coordinate and maintain correct connection info as the growing network of interconnected blockchains go through their own release cycles. This work is being co-funded by Web3 Foundation.Stargate, Big Bang & Cosmos SDK Release CandidateThe upcoming Stargate upgrade for the Cosmos Hub has taken another step forward by incorporating the new Cosmos SDK v0.40.0-rc0 release candidate. This upgrade is included in the new Stargate-4 testnet with the following live features: Protobuf, Legacy Amino, IBC & State-Sync. Join the new testnet which contains the same state as the current Cosmos Hub and will follow the same upgrade path from v0.37. If you’re interested in practicing an upgrade path between v0.38 or v0.39 take a look at the newly launched Big Bang testnet.Bug Bounty Rewards DoubledIn preparation for the Stargate upgrade to the Cosmos Hub the Bug Bounties awarded via the Hacker One account for any vulnerabilities found on our core repositories have been doubled.Thanks for catching up on our fourth update. We’ll be working on the format to keep it brief but informative. If there are things you’d like to hear more about feel free to reach out to or ping us on Twitter at @interchain_io.See you in 2 weeks!ICF Update — Oct 20th was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 10. 20

Announcing the ‘Big Bang’ S...

Stargate, or Cosmos-SDK v0.40, introduces some of the most groundbreaking features the Cosmos ecosystem has seen so far. This massive task was taken on by 7 different entities around the globe with a common passion for the Internet of Blockchains. After months of collaboration, the release candidate for Stargate has finally been released.However, releasing software is just half of the equation. The other half is testing it. With so many new features like state sync, cosmovisor, protobuf, IBC, and many more–it is crucial that these features are tested in the hands of those who will use it the most.This is where you can help.Why Big Bang?The goal of Big Bang is to create a multichain test environment that tests, simulates, and benchmarks the post-Stargate Cosmos. As every stack of software required for Stargate upgrade has matured, the software used and procedures handled in Big Bang will mimic the real world. We aim to provide a vibrant testing ground for validators, developers, ecosystem projects, and others a useful experience and a final chance to be Stargate ready.As the development of Stargate was decentralized across different entities, it felt apt that the testnet would be run by multiple entities. Big Bang will be operated by Regen Network, Vitwit, and Tendermint. And yes, we welcome contributions!The stargate-x organized and operated by Iqlusion focuses on Gaia / Cosmos Hub, specifically for integration testing on legacy amino for service providers such as wallets, explorers, and exchanges. The bigbang-x testnets will prioritize testing features, security, and performance with an emphasis on the amazing capabilities unlocked by the protobuf encoding refactor.A three-phase community-led testnetThe Big Bang testnet will be broken down into three stages, each having emphasis on different aspects of new features introduced by Stargate.Phase 1Schedule: 16-Oct-2020 1500UTC to 30-Oct-2020 1500UTCThe goal for Phase 1 of Big Bang is to bootstrap. A Cosmos-SDK v0.39 zone will be launched with the purpose of testing x/upgrade module and cosmovisor introduced in Stargate, which allows an automated upgrade of a Cosmos-SDK zone.This phase will target validators who aim to familiarize themselves with the automated software upgrade process. Check here for more details on Phase 1.Key timelinesGenTx submission: 16-Oct-2020 1500UTC to 19-Oct-2020 1500UTCGenesis file release: 19-Oct-2020 1600UTCNetwork genesis time: 20-Oct-2020 1600UTCSoftware upgrade proposal (v0.39.1 to v0.40.0) - 26-Oct-2020 1500UTCVoting Period — 48 hours (26–28rd-Oct-2020 1500UTC)Phase 2Schedule: 30-Oct-2020 1500UTC to 16-Nov-2020 1500UTCPhase 2 of Big Bang will revolve around feature and performance testing. The aim is to identify potential bugs and security vulnerabilities that may exist in the software and to objectively measure the performance of the software through a series of test scripts.Different from thestargate-3/4 testnet, which the goal is to ensure a smooth upgrade path for Cosmos Hub service providers, Big Bang will focus more on the wider Cosmos ecosystem and its projects. A light IBC testing between Big Bang, Agoric, Stargate-4, and Ethermint will take place.Specific activities and timelines will be announced through the cosmos/testnets GitHub repository.Phase 3Schedule: 16-Nov-2020 1500UTC to 11-Dec-2020 1500UTCFor Big Bang Phase 3, we want to introduce a multi-token incentivized Stargate testnet. This testnet phase will involve multiple zones from the ecosystem such as Cosmos Hub, Regen Network, Akash, and Chainapsis who plan on operating Stargate testnet zones of the application-specific blockchains throughout.We envision Phase 3 to be a community-funded Game of Zones like incentivized testnet where Cosmos developers, validators, and service providers can showcase the full potential of the post-Stargate Cosmos.More details on the incentivization and how you can participate will be shared via the cosmos/testnets repository. If your project would like to participate in Big Bang phase 3 by running a zone or provide token incentivization for participants, please leave an issue on the GitHub repository.Announcing the ‘Big Bang’ Stargate Testnet was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 10. 16

How Seven Teams Collaborate...

SummaryComplex software development coordinated by remote teams is a challenge to avoid the dreaded delays. In the crypto ecosystems, failures to ship can negatively impact community perception as well as token value. The successful release of the Cosmos Stargate software upgrade is a testament to a hard-won victory over this challenge. More than seven teams contributed to ship the Cosmos Stargate release. We asked the leading teams involved to contribute their insights into their journey to ship the Cosmos Stargate release. These teams included the Cosmos SDK team, the IBC and Tendermint Core teams at Interchain GmbH, Tendermint Inc Team, the Relayer team, the Informal Systems team, as well as Iqlusion.Below is an in-depth case study of success in teamwork and coordination unique to the Cosmos community. We are excited to share with the community our experience on this journey of what we did, what we learned and what is next as we launch the final version of the Cosmos Stargate.Iqlusion TeamWhat we didIn July of 2020, we at Iqlusion engaged the ICF team to organize and deliver a Cosmos Stargate proposal to the Hub that would ask the community to signal their desire to bring the Cosmos Stargate to the Hub. We were aware that the Stargate version would impact integrations from ecosystem partners. These partners would be exposed to certain risk of breaking changes due to the Stargate changes.Initial Partner integrationsIn July, the Iqlusion team initialized slack channels with leading Cosmos integration partners that included exchanges and wallets. Initial partners included leading cryptocurrency exchanges, Cosmos wallets as well as the top Cosmos validators. In addition to outlining the breaking changes, we asked each partner to share with us their requirements for successful integration testing of Cosmos Stargate.Response to initial requests for helpFeedback from partners mainly focused on their desire to understand the breaking changes from Amino to Protobuf, as well as the implications of IBC for exchanges. Iqlusion wanted to provide as much support for key partners and the community around the Amino endpoint changes and produced an Amino audit document AminoREST and You which consisted of endpoint behavior testing and updates from the Tendermint team and wallet partners. The Iqlusion team supported exchanges with an IBC Readiness Matrix document that would help exchanges understand the impact of IBC features in Cosmos Stargate and empower their decision making process.The iqlusion team is in active conversation with virtually all the major exchanges, custodians and wallets in the cosmos ecosystem.The Cosmos Stargate Gaia releaseIqlusion tracked the releases of Cosmos stargate upgrades to deliver the first gaia version of Cosmos Stargate. So far there are three versions of the initial Cosmos Stargate Gaia binaries. Iqlusion provided instructions for the community to download and access the testnet versions here: Now that the final release candidates for Tendermint, SDK, and IBC are available, Iqlusion will build and release the Cosmos Stargate RC testnet.What we learnedThe top three lessons for Iqlusion center around the great quality of code delivered to minimize the impact of breaking changes on exchange and wallet partner infrastructure.Lesson 1: Amino RPC endpoints. The team implemented a side-by-side view of each RPC JSON output. Comparisons of each of the outputs highlighted the excellent preservation of legacy endpoints by the Cosmos SDK team. Only one endpoint, QueryTxByHash, endpoint showed a high risk of query results breakage.Iqlusion learned through its infrastructure partners that they had the expertise to stress test their Stargate queries. Their feedback and the positive response to Stargate tests showed that they were ready to handle legacy Amino as well as prepare for the new protobuf endpoints. See our Amino audit document AminoREST and You and make sure that you have coverage for your Amino queries in the coming Cosmos Stargate as well.Lesson 2: IBC functionality is especially important for Cosmos infrastructure partners such as cryptocurrency exchanges. Exchanges expect IBC to unleash exciting new capabilities, but are not clear how demand will emerge as IBC features become more widespread. In order for exchanges to feel confident about these features, Iqlusion developed an IBC Readiness Matrix and flow of funds diagram to demonstrate how IBC would understand the flow of a hypothetical transmission of tokens from one Cosmos chain to another, while using an exchange-wallet.We expect that exchanges will start with limited features, but increase their IBC Skill levels as they get comfortable with Cosmos Stargate and as their users demand their wallets interact with IBC assets.Lesson 3: There are many more features in Cosmos Stargate that are of interest to infrastructure partners, including the automated migration and fast state sync. This means that these features will be in high demand on the Cosmos hub and will benefit the Hub as the leading blockchain for all Cosmos chains.What is nextIqlusion will announce the Cosmos Stargate Release testnet on its github for partners to give a final round of integration testing activity. Iqlusion will also work with the various Tendermint teams to scope and launch a Cosmos Stargate bug bounty program. The goal will be to begin stress testing the component and Gaia releases with incentives to highlight bugs and issues in the release candidates.Iqlusion plans to also showcase a live demo of Cosmos Stargate testnet auto-migration feature for non-chain halt upgrades. Once this is complete, Iqlusion will prepare its Halloween October 31, 2020, proposal for upgrading the Cosmos Hub to Cosmos Stargate.Tendermint Core Team (Interchain GmbH)What we didTendermint Core 0.34, the version of Tendermint Core which supports the Stargate upgrade, contains a number of new features that have been in the works for months, if not years. These include a new light client, which will provide more safety to IBC; updated evidence handling, to hold nodes accountable for attempts to fool this light client; a migration to protocol buffers for serialization; and the state sync feature, which allows new nodes to join pre-existing networks in a matter of minutes instead of days. Collectively, these features mean that we expect Tendermint Core 0.34 to be the safest, fastest, and most usable version of Tendermint to date.New Light ClientTendermint Core 0.34 introduces a new implementation of the light client. This new light client introduces a number of changes, but most critically, it has weak subjectivity, meaning that it only trusts block headers from within the unbonding period. This is an important stipulation for light clients operating in proof-of-stake networks, and is key to the security of IBC.For more, including details on how to operate the light client, see our post on the new light client: Everything you need to know about the Tendermint Light Client.Updated Evidence HandlingThe introduction of a new light client also expands the potential surface area for attackers. Light clients need to be able to identify suspicious behavior, package up the evidence from that suspicious behavior, and submit it back to full nodes so that they can verify it and then hold any misbehaving nodes accountable. For more on the new evidence handling lifecycle and types, see ADR 59. For more on specific attacks on the light client, see ADR 56.Protocol Buffer MigrationAlong with the other projects in the Cosmos stack, Tendermint Core 0.34 adopts Protocol Buffers for serialization, replacing a custom and under-supported encoding format. We expect this change will bring an orders-of-magnitude improvement in performance to Tendermint and its downstream dependencies, in addition to big improvements in maintainability, readability and stability. For more on this migration, see our blog post: Tendermint 0.34, Protocol Buffers, and You.State SyncTendermint Core 0.34 introduces the new state sync feature. This allows new full nodes to join pre-existing networks without replaying consensus block-by-block. Instead, they can sync application state directly from other full nodes. For the Cosmos Hub, and other long-lived networks, this can reduce the time for a new node to come online from days to minutes. State sync is a major usability improvement, and has been requested for years. We are delighted to finally ship it in Tendermint 0.34!Additional Features and ImprovementsAlong with many of the major features mentioned above, Tendermint Core 0.34 includes a number of smaller features and bug fixes. These include fixing the hashing of empty data sets, allowing the application to return the app hash from InitChain, fixing a bug in the validator proposer schedule, and allowing chains to start at an arbitrary initial height.What we learnedLesson 1: Invest in coordination with the research team. The evidence handling work was a collaboration between the research team, at Informal Systems, and the Tendermint Core team, at Interchain GmbH. The team at Informal often takes the lead on designing and specifying protocol-heavy work, such as evidence handling, while the Interchain GmbH team is responsible for implementing and polishing this work. But there was an early miscommunication when the Interchain GmbH team started working on the evidence handling work: The Interchain team believed that the evidence handling specifications had been ratified when they had not; and implementation began prematurely. Consequently, there were several rewrites of both the specification and the implementation, and this delayed the release of Tendermint Core 0.34.In order to ensure that there’s smoother collaboration in the future, we’re investing in our coordination with the research team, beginning with a unified specification repo which will act as a single source of truth for all Tendermint specifications. We’re also working on shared roadmaps that can highlight protocol dependencies for upcoming Tendermint Core features.Lesson 2: It’s time for some serious end-to-end tests.One of the early release candidates for Tendermint Core 0.34 contained a bug that was caught by our friends at Oasis Labs. Oasis has been a fantastic integration partner for many reasons, but in part because they run their own extensive end-to-end tests. Although Tendermint Core has had solid unit test coverage, and has been thoroughly tested through both incentivized and more casual testnets, it had lacked a true end-to-end testing framework that could put the software through its paces in a variety of configurations and environments. The bug found in the release candidate was one of our motivations for building our own end-to-end testing system. You can read more about the plan for this work — which is now nearly completed — in our end-to-end testing RFC.What is nextWe are currently planning the next two substantial Tendermint Core releases, which will focus on performance, correctness, and, above all else, stability. Over these two releases, we will stabilize the block protocol, as well as all exposed APIs, including Go APIs, in preparation for Tendermint Core 1.0. We envision Tendermint Core 1.0 as a piece of stable and trusted infrastructure.Stay tuned for a more detailed roadmap soon!Regen & the Cosmos SDK TeamWhat we didRegen Network took over the role of lead maintainer in March/April of 2020. Our plan was to work slowly to upgrade the Cosmos SDK to become a lean and powerful base to connect to the ecosystem of custom modules that is evolving. There were several key barriers to the SDK performing in the way chain builders like Regen needed. On a practical level, this has meant a large refactoring of the Cosmos SDK’s encoding & serialization format from Amino to Protocol Buffers. This vastly improved the performance and developer experience of the SDK.What is Protobuf Encoding? “Protocol buffers is a language-neutral, platform-neutral, extensible mechanism for serializing structured data — think XML, but smaller, faster, and simpler. You define how you want your data to be structured once, then you can use special generated source code to easily write and read your structured data to and from a variety of data streams and using a variety of languages.” — From the google protobuf pageOn the other hand, despite the legacy CosmosSDK encoding system, amino, becoming a major barrier for developer and user adoption, amino based encoding is used by 100% of the Cosmos Hub community of users. These users include major exchanges, wallets, and forcing them all to jump into a massive breaking change didn’t seem wise. We also wanted to preserve legacy access to amino encoding for users who prefer using that format for other reasons. Therefore our team worked extremely hard to make it possible to choose the encoding format. This means that the legacy amino format is supported, as well as the new protobuf format. Ensuring that in the journey to Stargate and IBC, if users chose to stick with amino in the short term to cut down on developer time and risk, they can. Other users who want to play with the more highly performant protobuf encoding format can choose that.What we learnedOne of our biggest learnings over the course of working on the Stargate upgrade was that things are a lot harder when trying to maintain backwards compatibility. There are many places in which it would have been technically easier and quicker for us to rip Amino out entirely, and only build in a working Protobuf based Cosmos SDK, but because we wanted to preserve the legacy Amino transaction path (to make it easier for client migrations), we had to spend a significant amount of time on abstracting over the serialization format, and hand tuning in several areas the different implementations in both Amino and Protocol Buffers.A second key learning is that when doing a big refactor, it’s incredibly hard to know all of the scope up front. There were a lot of unknowns with the protobuf migration, and several instances where a seemingly small & straightforward task ballooned in scope and pushed the release date back weeks. Be conservative with estimations, doing accurate estimations on big refactors is HARD!Lastly, it’s better to bite the bullet and do things the right way the first time when faced with the choice between tackling a problem now or later. We bit the bullet when we ported many of the SDK modules’ integration tests to the SDK, which previously only lived in the Gaia repo. After copying most of the integration tests, we later decided to refactor the way integration tests were done, into an in-process test network testing framework. This led to a lot of duplicated work — porting all of the integration tests a second time to the new framework, and would have been much cleaner if we started with building the new testing framework, and then ported over all the tests just once.What is next:Vision:Our vision of 1.0 is that the cosmos sdk offers a stable platform for a thriving and interoperable module ecosystem. It will offer a level of stability for long lived decentralized apps to operate. We want to make using blockchain applications accessible to a much broader group of users through better key and fee management.Achieving a 1.0 of the Cosmos SDK has been a sometime contentious and always elusive concept. However it seems like there is an emerging consensus about a lean, modular and secure core SDK and an ecosystem of application specific modules that is the manifestation of the original vision of the SDK coming into sight. Check out this conversation between Alessio Treglia, Ethan Frey and Aaron Craelius about how we can achieve a stable 1.0 version of the Cosmos SDK.The Regen team, in partnership with ICF and Tendermint alongside other fantastic ecosystem teams, is implementing a well organized protocol for contributions and decision making about additions to the Cosmos SDK, as well as publishing a high level 2021 roadmap that is public and can be commented on.The SDK team has biweekly architecture review calls, and a monthly Cosmos SDK User community call.Akash & The Relayer TeamWhat we didAkash Network took over the maintenance of the Golang IBC Relayer starting in July 2020. Prior to that Jack Zampolin, working with Iqlusion, wrote the initial implementation that showcased how to use IBC. That relayer was featured in The Game of Zones competition, starting in March, which showed the community how close this signature piece of infrastructure is to being ready for use.After moving to Akash, Jack continued to work on the relayer and closed a contract with the ICF in August to ensure that this crucial piece of IBC infrastructure is in working order for the launch of the protocol. Since then, the Akash team has been working closely with both Interchain Berlin and the ICF team to ensure the readiness of the relayer for stargate. We then brought theWhat we learnedOur biggest learning from developing the relayer has been what an amazing, supportive and productive community Cosmos is: the Agoric team, instrumental in helping turn IBC from an idea into a reality, the AiB team tirelessly improving the developer experience, the Interchain Berlin team doing the heavy lifting of specifying and implementing the protocol as well as the new features in tendermint, the Iqlusion team providing project management, crucial code contributions and most importantly leadership, the ICF bringing funding and vision, the Informal team with critical work on the light client and the rust relayer, the Regen team leading the SDK and introducing protobuf, and all the individual contributors combining to make IBC a reality. This small group, already a mouthful to acknowledge, is quickly growing so large that if this article was written in a month or so would include another 20–30 teams.What is nextThere are a number of exciting features coming to a relayer near you soon!Misbehavior monitoring and automatic submissionRelayer metrics such as wallet balances, amount of fees paid, packets relayed, etc… exported via a Prometheus server for quick and easy metrics.REST server that exposes the functionality from the CLI to make automated relayer configuration and operation easy for exchanges and other high volume use casesFurther development of the event driven relayer functionality including event driven connection/channel creation. We have submitted an ADR to the SDK to support this workFeatures to support applications relying on IBC in production: if you are running an IBC enabled chain, and you require features from the relayer, please reach out!Informal Systems TeamWhat we didFormal Specification, Protocol Review, and Model Based TestingThe Informal Systems team has been leading the formal specification effort for critical elements of the Cosmos technology stack, using TLA+ to formally specify protocols and their properties, and using our in-house model checker, Apalache, to verify those properties. We completed extensive specifications for the Tendermint Light Client in English and TLA+, which guided the implementation effort for both the Go and Rust teams. We’ve also been carefully reviewing the existing English IBC specification and have nearly completed TLA+ specs for the entire IBC protocol. These may be some of the largest public TLA+ specs, ever! Our protocol review and specification efforts have surfaced numerous bugs throughout the process in both the light-client and IBC, which have since been fixed, and we continue to be active in the security of Tendermint and IBC through code reviews and joint management of the Bug Bounty program.We are also now using Apalache to automatically generate complex tests for both Go and Rust implementations of the Tendermint light client and IBC directly from the TLA+ specs — so-called “Model Based Testing”. This has the potential to greatly improve test coverage, reduce test maintenance efforts, and ensure the specifications and software remain aligned.tenermint-rsTendermint-rs is a Rust implementation of core Tendermint data structures, used primarily in the Tendermint Key Management System, but also by public Tendermint-based networks like We have upgraded the library in the upcoming v0.17 release to be compatible with Stargate and v0.34 of Tendermint Core, essentially gutting all traces of Amino in favour of Protocol Buffers, and refactoring the code to improve developer ergonomics by separating the protobuf serialization types from the in-memory “domain types”. We have also implemented a complete light-client in Rust, which can be compiled to WebAssembly, and a new WebSocket client for communicating with Tendermint full nodes.ibc-rsIbc-rs is a Rust implementation of the IBC protocol and relayer. While development began pre Stargate, the latest v0.0.4 release has been upgraded for Stargate compatibility. The codebase is still in an early stage, but the IBC client and connection handlers have been implemented and the first traces of a relayer and protobuf-compatible transaction signing are beginning to appear!What we learnedFormal Verification must be in service of Software DevelopmentWe originally began with the premise of “Verification Driven Development”, an approach to software development that would be motivated fundamentally by the concerns of formal verification. However, as we progressed, we found ourselves wanting a more Development Driven Verification. In the end, building and verifying software, especially in a multi-entity context, is a delicate dance requiring continuous feedback between protocol researchers and software engineers. At the end of the day, the most important thing is working software, and if verification isn’t in service of that, then what’s it really good for? While formally specifying the protocols has helped us think more clearly about them and surface a number of important bugs, the most valuable artifact is likely to be the model-based testing — complex test cases generated directly from the TLA+ specifications that can be run against any implementation.Serialization is the Ultimate Implementation DetailAt one point, one of our research engineers asked, “what’s a protobuf and why do we spend so much time talking about them?” This was a stark demonstration of the gaps that can arise between the concerns of software and research engineering. To the latter, serialization is just an implementation detail. But in some sense, it is the Ultimate Implementation Detail, as it defines compatibility with other implementations and provides the physical instantiation of the protocol outside the computer’s memory. The choice of Amino early in the life of Cosmos has made multiple implementations exceedingly difficult, and it’s been a monumental effort by many teams to overhaul Amino and replace it with the standardized protocol buffers. We’re sure the effort will pay off in spades. We’ve also learned how important it is to separate serialization code from the rest of your logic — pushing it as far to the edges of your software as possible. This frees developers from having to worry too much about serialization, makes it easier to provide backwards compatibility, and simplifies the work of upgrading the serialization in the future. Check out how tendermint-rs implemented its domain types, separate from its protobuf types, as an example of this.What is nextComplete Model Based TestingWe’ve seen great initial results generating tests for the Rust light client, which are now also being applied to the Go light client. There’s lots more work to do in defining how the tests should be generated and what kind of cases should be explored, and in augmenting the model-based tests with additional forms of fuzzing. We’re also looking forward to generating tests for all aspects of IBC and using them to ensure compatibility between the Go and Rust implementations, and future implementations in other languages.Full IBC Handlers and Relayer in RustNow that we’re over the Amino hump and the Cosmos-SDK has stabilized, we’re working towards a complete IBC relayer in Rust. The Rust relayer will complement the excellent work done for the Go relayer. A major focus of the Rust relayer is capturing edge cases and failure modes, especially caused by relayer races and malicious relayers. It will also provide some client diversity to the growing Cosmos ecosystem, enabling more integration points in Rust, and will target compilation into WebAssembly. We’re also working towards complete implementations of the IBC handlers in Rust, allowing other blockchain applications written in Rust to easily integrate into the Cosmos Network via IBC.Tendermint Full Node in RustWe are planning for tendermint-rs to evolve into a full fledged Tendermint full node implementation in Rust. We’re working closely with the Tendermint Core team on our plans to ensure our roadmaps stay aligned and our mutual efforts feedback constructively to one another. We plan to start with a simple P2P seed node in Rust that will help with peer discovery on Stargate networks, and look forward to working with the Tendermint Core team on much anticipated upgrades to the entire Tendermint P2P subsystem.Protocol Security ReviewWe are continuing to carefully review key Cosmos protocols with an eye towards formally specifying them and improving test coverage of the implementations. As the ecosystem continues to grow, more and more protocols will be coming online, from bridges to other blockchains, to automated market makers, staking derivatives, interchain staking, extensions to IBC, and more. Informal plans to participate in protocol and implementation review for these critical components to help maintain the high quality standard for software that Cosmos is so well known for.Tendermint IncTendermint Inc and friends!What we didEnhanced Developer ExperienceWe at Tendermint Inc have put ourselves in the shoes of Cosmos SDK client application developers and focused on improving their development experience.First has been acknowledging that the pace of the Go API evolution has been relentless and has left developers playing constant catch-up. To address this, and in collaboration with Confio and Regen Networks, we launched the Cosmos-SDK v0.39 “Launchpad” release series. This has two aims: to provide a stable platform for use by Cosmos-SDK application developers and provide a smooth migration path to Stargate.Second, we believe that developing and deploying blockchain applications should be as easy as writing traditional web applications. Our new product — Starport — is designed to do — and is doing — exactly that. The feedback from the community has been overwhelming.AdoptionWe’ve decisively thrown our weight behind the Cosmos Community at large. We supported developers in migrating their code to Cosmos SDK v0.39 Launchpad by submitting patches and opening pull requests for their code base, provided them with unprecedented high quality technical support (on a case-by-case basis).Core DevelopmentWe haveDelivered a more secure implementation of the keyring that applications use to store users’ keys.Integrated the Cosmos Upgrade Manager into the Cosmos SDK.Implemented Coinbase’s Rosetta API specifications into Cosmos SDK.Optimised the Cosmos SDK build system’s internals, written tests (tons of tests!).Contributed to the design of the new testing tools for integration testing.Awareness and CommunityTo support the Stargate initiative and raise awareness around the new features coming to Cosmos, Tendermint has built a website The beautifully designed website provides an overview of the changes being introduced with Stargate, includes a detailed view of the running testnets and features a progress tracker. Since launch in mid July the website has generated over 13,000 unique impressions. Average time on page: 5 min.In addition to providing design assets that have been supporting the awareness around the Stargate event, the Tendermint Inc team has also been at the forefront of providing updates to the community through the use of various initiatives like the Engineering updates or Today in Cosmos reviews. By managing and populating the social channels with constant updates on the state of the Cosmos Ecosystem development, we were able to communicate effectively with our larger community and keep them up to date with the teams’ progress.What we learnedThe value of the team, community and persistence.The Stargate’s development cycle has proven to be challenging for our organization, yet the team stayed focused on the Cosmos Hub and its community, ultimately turning stumbling blocks into stepping stones to new opportunities. Stargate has been an introspective journey that led us to re-discover our passion.We learned the importance of actively listening to the Community. We have debated, argued, come to agreements, and most importantly built upon their feedback. We believe that Starport is possibly the most prominent example of how to turn feedback into action.Lastly, we learned that collaboration is at the heart of successful ambitious technologies like IBC. Partnering with so many teams across the globe to launch Stargate has been a unique experience that we enjoyed fully.What is nextFirstly, we intend to continue putting our over-15 year-long experience and expertise in systems development on the line in the development of the Cosmos SDK.In collaboration with B-Harvest, we’ve started to work on an Automated Market Making (AMM) module within the Cosmos SDK, and thereby bring the concept of Decentralized Exchanges to the Cosmos network.We’ve initiated a new project sponsored by Interchain Foundation called Cosmos Cash. This is focused on the tools required to deliver decentralised, digital and universal payments systems based on a network of authorised issuers. The intention? A secure, efficient and universal method for accessing services and purchasing goods in frictionless and borderless fashion.Last but not least, we’re getting bigger and stronger. In the last three months, the Engineering and DevX team have doubled and trebled in size respectively, ready for the next development cycle of the Cosmos technology core stack, products, and partners’ technologies.IBC Team (Interchain GmbH)What we didThe Inter Blockchain Communication protocol (IBC) has been the core value proposition for Cosmos since first introduced on the whitepaper. The Cosmos SDK’s Stargate release finally delivers the promise of an ecosystem of interconnected blockchains with the first version of IBC.IBC SpecificationInterchain GmbH has led the creation of a canonical specification for the IBC protocol during the past year. This specification outlines the data-structures and interfaces required by a chain that supports IBC (core protocol and applications on top of it). The specification has been developed by a number of stakeholders (Interchain GmbH, Tendermint Inc, Agoric, Informal Systems and others) and consolidated in a set of Interchain Standards (ICS).IBC Golang ImplementationThe first implementation of the protocol has been developed in Golang, as a Cosmos SDK module. The implementation consisted in several features:Core IBC: Implementation of the IBC specification for transport, ordering and authentication of packets (TAO). Supports light client state interfaces, connection and channel handshakes, packet handling and hostname validation.Light client states: Each implementation includes client creation, client update, upgrade handling, proof verification and misbehaviour handling. The supported clients for IBC v1 on the stargate release are: solo machine client, Tendermint Core client and localhost client.IBC applications: The IBC module supports fungible token transfers between connected chains.Testing package: A developer friendly testing package that eases unit and end to end testing of IBC core data structures, user flows and IBC applications.Client services: Support for CLI and gRPC services for interacting with the core protocol and application layers.Protobuf compatibility: IBC v1 will only support protobuf as the encoding format (i.e no support for legacy amino).Capability module: The IBC team also developed an object capability module that supports IBC port binding. It was built as a standalone module that supports other SDK modules and applications.What we learnedLesson 1: Developer UX.After Game of Zones concluded, we focused on redesigning the clients and UX around the relayer. This resulted in the creation of new queries, and the implementation of the IBC app module interface and callbacks. These additions allowed us to provide an easy way for developers to create custom applications on top of IBC.Lesson 2: Handling chain upgrades and client recovery.A chain upgrade must account for special edge cases for both planned and unscheduled upgrades (e.g., when a chain halts due to a bug that needs to be patched) that can contain breaking changes or not. Some of these edge cases that are included in the implementation were: preventing upgrades to expired clients, integration with the upgrade module to check what the latest scheduled upgrade plan is, and modifying the light client states to include both the version number (epoch) and the block height. Additionally, we added the option to update frozen or expired clients via governance proposal. This allows for previously locked funds to be unlocked again with a valid block header. For more on client recovery mechanisms, see ADR26.Lesson 3: Modularity for future light clients.The core IBC client implementation had to be refactored after we started the implementation of the solomachine client, as we realized that our implementation wasn’t modular enough to support new light client states. The IBC implementation on the Stargate release has been refactored to support additional BFT chains light clients such as Polkadot’s GRANDPA client.What is nextThe IBC team is planning the next set of features for the IBC implementation, both on a core protocol level and as IBC applications. The most notable core features include cross-chain validation for shared security, multi-hop packet routing (i.e channels with more than one connection), NFT over IBC, etc. We expect additional feature requests to be included as the community interacts with the protocol.Interchain Foundation TeamWhat we didWe paid for it.What we learnedThe bazaar is stronger than the cathedral.What is nextCosmos SDK v1.0, more governance capabilities, improved UX on key and account management, fee delegations, IBC on other networks, multi-chain wallets, burner chains…. The Internet of BlockchainsHow Seven Teams Collaborated To Deliver The Biggest Software Upgrade In The Cosmos Universe was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 10. 14

Cosmos Stargate Release Bug...

SummaryThe Cosmos Stargate testnet release candidate is ready to launch. The various Cosmos teams responsible for delivering this new software are excited to enlist the help of the community to identify critical bugs that may have made it past engineering and integration testing so far. We depend on the community to assist us with testing so that we can increase confidence in the software release. Thus, for Stargate we will launch a special bug bounty program that will last from today through December 31, 2020. Rewards for this program will be temporarily increased from rewards in prior programs to encourage the community to actively support bug discovery.About the Cosmos Stargate Bug BountyThe Cosmos Stargate release teams include the Cosmos SDK, IBC, Tendermint Core, and IBC Relayer teams. We all believe that proactively finding and fixing bugs is a vital part of building strong, resilient blockchain protocols.Our program exists to actively reward the people who discover bugs in our protocol and the products we’re building.Recent changes to the code include a transition from an in-house serialization system to Protobuf, major new Tendermint Core features like state sync and the first implementation of Cosmos’s flagship Inter-blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol. These are high priority for the security community to review.Bounty rewards are based on many factors including impact, risk, likelihood of exploitation, and report quality. We use the CVSS framework to score all reports in a standardized and fair way.Only for the Cosmos Stargate Release and only until December 31st 2020, we’ve increased the rewards for bugs and they will be classified into these categories for payout:Critical: $5,000 and upHigh: $3,000 and upMedium : $1,000 and upLow: up to $200While there is no maximum program reward, we value creative or severe bugs and we will reward them accordingly. The Trail of Bits team will evaluate each report and is responsible for rating the severity of each bug submitted. At our discretion, we may choose to reward high-quality reports or creative lower-tier bugs at a higher-tier level.If we receive duplicate bug reports, we will award a bounty, if applicable, to the first person who reported the issue. Once resolved, valid issues reported to this program will be disclosed responsibly once they have been remediated.Program ScopeThe Cosmos Stargate release consists of upgrades and breaking changes to the Cosmos SDK, Tendermint, Gaia, and IBC codebases. Below is a brief summary of the changes to each project and links to their respective repositories:TendermintRepository: Cosmos Hub has been running since December 2019 using the v0.32 series of Tendermint (latest version v0.32.13). There have since been major protocol breaking upgrades and various other changes introduced in the v0.33 and v0.34 releases of Tendermint, that have not yet been deployed to the Cosmos Hub (see the many v0.33 and v0.34 series release notes in the CHANGELOG). We are especially interested in security regressions, risks, DoS, and other security vulnerabilities introduced with these changes. These changes include:Migration from Amino to Protocol Buffers (see example regression)This in particular has a lot of surface area for regressions and other bugs, including malleable messages, invalid size bounds, serialization-related DoS, etc.. See the Tendermint 0.34, Protocol Buffers, and You post for context on this migration.Commit data structure refactor (see example regression)Upgraded light client protocol (see example regression)Upgraded evidence handling reactor protocol (for validator accountability, and especially for attacks on light clients)New state sync reactor protocol for quickly downloading the application stateBlock pruningCosmos SDKRepository: Cosmos Hub has been running since December 2019 using the v0.37 series of the Cosmos-SDK (latest version v0.37.14). There have since been major protocol breaking upgrades and various other changes introduced in the v0.38, v0.39, and v0.40 releases of the Cosmos-SDK, that have not yet been deployed to the Cosmos Hub (see the major v0.38.0, v0.39.0, and v0.40.0 release notes, or view all changelog entries directly in the CHANGELOG). We are especially interested in security regressions, security risks, DoS, and other security vulnerabilities introduced with these changes.Since v0.39.1 (the most recent published version of the Cosmos SDK), the major changes include:Migration of the SDK’s primary serialization format from Amino to Protocol BuffersIntroduction of single application binary ( + upgrade daemon)New testutil package for in-process integration tests / testnet testing frameworkMore detail on these major upgrades are available in the Stargate release notes, but the CHANGELOG is still the best place to see a comprehensive list of all breaking changes and improvements.Gaia (Cosmos Hub)Repository: all the relevant changes that affect Gaia are contained in the Cosmos-SDK repository. That said, the Gaia repo still composes the application and pulls everything together, and is the place where the binaries are ultimately built from. While the Cosmos Hub has been running the v2 series of Gaia releases since December, the v3 release will include updating for all the relevant changes in the Cosmos-SDK and Tendermint, and especially adding support for new modules like IBC.IBCRepository: inter-blockchain communication (IBC) protocol is implemented within the Cosmos-SDK repository, in particular within the `x/ibc` directory. All sub-modules within `x/ibc` in the Cosmos-SDK are in scope. See both the IBC implementation documentation and the IBC protocol specification.IAVLRepository: Cosmos Hub has been running since December 2019 using the v0.12.4 release of the IAVL. There have since been major breaking upgrades and various other changes introduced in the v0.13, v0.14, and v0.15 releases of the IAVL that have not yet been deployed to the Cosmos Hub (see the many v0.13, v0.14, and v0.15 series release notes in the CHANGELOG). We are especially interested in security regressions, security risks, DoS, and other security vulnerabilities introduced with these changes. These changes included, primarily, better support and fixes for pruning the database, and migrating from Amino serialization to Protocol Buffers.OtherThe following additional repositories are also in scope: Restricted to the ed25519 provider sub-crates like dalek-ed25519 and ring. Restricted to the ed25519 pubkey and signing paths. these have seen fewer changes than the other repos, they are all highly security critical as they handle private key material and secure hardware signing for both validators and token holdersMore DetailsTo qualify for a bounty, bugs must be:Valid on the master branch of the corresponding repository.Valid for 64-bit machines with at least 2 GB RAM.Valid on Tendermint clusters where less than ⅓ of the nodes are faulty or malicious.We’re interested in a full range of bugs with demonstrable security risk: from those that can be proven with a simple unit test, to those that require a full cluster and a complex sequence of transactions.Examples of vulnerabilities that are of interest to us include memory allocation bugs, race conditions, timing attacks, information leaks, authentication bypasses, incorrect block validation, denial of service (specifically at the application- or protocol-layer), lost-write bugs, unauthorized account or capability access, stolen funds, token inflation bugs, payloads/transactions that cause panics, and so on. We are also interested in vulnerabilities that highlight clusters where more than ⅓ of the nodes may become faulty or malicious.Please see here for a quick-start guide to getting Tendermint running so you can start hunting for bugs. To work with Cosmos-SDK, start here to learn more about getting it up and running in your testing environment.All other associated websites, services, and sub-domains are out of scope, including:https://tendermint.comhttps://cosmos.networkCloud services, including AWS S3 bucketsThough bugs in the services that we use are important to us, they are ineligible for program rewards. Any bugs that are found in services that we use (i.e. Mailchimp, Meetup, Discord, and Telegram) should be disclosed directly to those services.Scanner-generated reports and “Advisory” or “Informational” reports that do not include any Tendermint or Cosmos specific testing or context are ineligible for rewards. Additionally, clickjacking as a single finding and issues requiring social engineering components are ineligible for reward as part of this program. However, we may accept clickjacking as part of a chain. We also assume that all server environments have not been compromised before and during testing by other adversarial software or actors.Security GuidelinesSee our Security Policy Document for more details on submissions and rewards.Cosmos Stargate Release Bug Bounty Program was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 10. 08

ICF Update — Oct 6th

ICF Update — Oct 6thWelcome to the third edition of our bi-weekly update! We’ll be using this space to highlight some of the exciting activities that took place at the Interchain Foundation over the last two weeks. This will include some check-in meetings that occurred with various funding recipients, as well as goings-on that members of the Interchain ecosystem might find interesting and informative.If any of the updates are especially relevant to what you are working on feel free to drop us a line at you missed the last update, check it out at ICF Update — Sept 22.Q4 Grants Deadline Updated to October 31stBased on the new quarterly cadence of the ICF funding program you should have expected the deadline for Q4 to be at the end of November. However, since the last two weeks of December are typically spent on holidays, and to improve the review process by adding two weeks, we’ve decided to move the deadline for Q4 applications up to October 31st. This will allow a total of six weeks to fulfill the review process and leaves the last two weeks of the year open for everyone to spend on holidays ⛄️Take a look at to make your application soon!Akash IBC Relayer Service AgreementAkash Network has begun work on extending features of the Golang implementation of the IBC Relayer as part of a new service agreement with the Interchain Foundation. This work began when Jack Zampolin, VP of Product at Akash, was working with Zaki Manian at Iqlusion earlier this year during Game of Zones. Since Jack’s move to Akash, he’s been building up capacity within their team to support this core piece of infrastructure for the ecosystem. This will ensure there is a production-ready relayer available to transport IBC packets between IBC connected blockchains, like the Cosmos Hub using the Stargate release of the Cosmos SDK.Ape Unit Eventivize Zone DeployerApe Unit recently completed the second milestone of their service agreement around a product called Eventivize that makes it easy to build and deploy blockchains for live events. They are working with CTM Music Festival as well as Nyege Nyege Festival to provide Cosmos SDK applications that will be used during the events to give attendees greater access to artists. The milestone includes a tool called LanchControlD that configures and deploys new blockchains to a number of different service providers, like AWS, Digital Ocean or Hetzner, using Docker Machine. This brings us one step closer to a single click deploy sequence that will make launching blockchains much easier.Chainapsis Interchain Accounts on BigBang TestnetChainapsis, the authors of ICS-27 Interchain Accounts and the browser wallet Keplr, are planning to include a Stargate compatible version of the standard in the upcoming BigBang Testnet for users to try out the awesome capabilities of Interchain Accounts. This will be a great opportunity to try out one of the more exciting flavors of staking derivatives, experimental wallet security and cross-chain VM execution. Keep an eye out for more announcements on the testnet and how to interact with it.AlphaBond, IXO’s Bonding Curve ModuleIXO recently completed work on AlphaBond, the general purpose Bonding Curve module for use in the Cosmos SDK and on IXO’s upcoming impact bonds blockchain. This module makes it possible to deploy Uniswap-esque Automatic Market Makers as well as Constant Slope Formula Bonding Curves. What’s really cool is that it’s possible to combine these capabilities with this module. Their work also includes the advanced implementation of Augmented Bonding Curves as developed by BlockScience and Commons Stack from Giveth. On top of everything it comes with batched transactions to prevent front-running!IXO will be leading a Code With Us workshop on November 3rd at 17:00 CET. Be sure to sign up here if you’d like to get some hands on experience using the new module.Second InterNFT Working Group MeetingSeptember 25th was the second InterNFT Working Group meeting organized by Persistence One and IXO. It included the launch of the new website that incorporates details from previous meetings as well as updates on all of the work happening within the working group. The website is generated automatically from the GitHub repository, so feel free to open issues and PRs to contribute directly to the site. The meeting also revealed the launch of a new forum where conversations about the evolving spec can be discussed before being converted into ARD/RFCs on the actual Cosmos SDK repository.This meeting also contained presentations from the Substrate and Ethereum-based NFT project Centrifuge by engineer Charly Fei, and Cosmos SDK nameservice Starname (previously IOV) by Antoine Herzog, as well as updates from Bruno Škvorc of Kusama/Polkadot on, a clever way to include NFTs into Kusama before native NFTs are implemented.Chainsafe and Ethermint UpdatesChainsafe recently completed another milestone of their service agreement to shepherd the Ethermint code base to production quality and deploy a persistent Ethermint zone. This one was around full implementation of the Eth Personal API. They are currently working on updating Ethermint to be Stargate compatible. Previously they completed benchmarks that showed a 2x improvement on transaction throughput, but once they complete the update to Stargate, they will be publishing new benchmarks that should demonstrate an even greater performance increase.Relevant Kick-Off CallAs part of the Q2 funding program, Slava Balasanov, founder of Relevant, received a service agreement to implement an off-chain worker tool that should allow Cosmos SDK nodes to provide the results of off-chain computation in an oracle-like method. The plan is to utilize Peggy as the basis for this module as it shares much of the same logic, and allow CosmWasm to act as a computation environment. This will allow future updates to submit off-chain computations back on-chain should there be debate about the validity of the results. This work is part of the ongoing efforts for Relevant to migrate from a purely Ethereum-based solution of their incentivized news platform to the Cosmos SDK.Nomic and their Rust SDK, OrgaThe team of long time Cosmos contributors and builders of the Bitcoin sidechain, Nomic, have begun work on their third milestone as part of an ICF service agreement. This leg of their work includes improving capabilities of the rust-based SDK they’re developing called Orga. Orga is a minimalist state machine framework that allows performant deterministic state machines to be built in rust. Improvements include staking, governance, querying and tendermint lightclient capabilities for javascript environments. They’ve also been in talks with Informal about the integration of their IBC handlers into Orga to enable trustless IBC Bitcoin.Atlas, the Cosmos SDK Module RegistryTwo weeks ago we announced that work had begun on Atlas, the Cosmos SDK Module Registry, and we’ve already seen tons of activity on the codebase. Bez recently completed the initial version of the registry’s database schemas and implemented the first version of the project’s APIs. This makes it possible to create, read, update and delete module registries after authenticating via GitHub’s API. Once this work is complete, developers will have a site like or to browse the various modules available for integration into Cosmos SDK applications.Cosmos HiringThere are a number of open roles within the Cosmos Ecosystem. We’ve been interviewing candidates for two positions at Interchain GmbH and would love to see more candidates, particularly from underrepresented communities. Also take a look at several openings for Informal Systems.Diversity and Inclusion TrainingThe ICF has made a long-term commitment to working against structural inequality and discrimination, which starts with educating ourselves about these issues. Last week, the ICF began a pilot diversity and inclusion training program with Interchain GmbH and Informal. The two teams discussed several readings together, asked questions, and initiated a conversation about biases in our community. This is the beginning of an ongoing dialogue about the structural transformation that’s needed within our own organisations, the Cosmos ecosystem, and across the wider blockchain industry.— -Thanks for catching up on our third of many regular updates. We’ll be working on the format to keep it brief but informative. If there are things you’d like to hear more about feel free to reach out to or ping us on Twitter at @interchain_io.See you in 2 weeks!ICF Update — Oct 6th was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 10. 06

Rosetta API for Cosmos SDK

IntroductionIn the blockchain space, as well as in other industries that rely on operational processes and exchange or sharing of information between different systems, having a set of Interoperability standards is key to building solid and foundational protocols.Rosetta API, an open-source specification and set of tools developed by Coinbase, makes integrating with blockchains simpler, faster, and more reliable by establishing a standard API for integrating blockchain applications.By using a common interface that standardizes the process of how a user interacts with a blockchain, both the work of exchanges to integrate with new blockchains and also of the developers to build cross-blockchain applications such as block explorers, wallets and dApps is considerably reduced.With IBC about to be enabled following the imminent Stargate upgrade and a vision of interconnectable blockchains on the horizon, Tendermint Engineering has been working on an initial implementation of Rosetta API for Cosmos SDK to enable applications to make blockchain data available through endpoints compliant with the standard proposed by Coinbase.What does this mean for the Cosmos ecosystem?The Rosetta API implementation allows:Exchanges to seamlessly integrate new blockchains that run Rosetta API without any additional developer effort.Cross-blockchain Apps like block explorers, wallets, and dApps to be built more easily and to have a faster onboarding integrationTendermint team is excited to release the Rosetta API MVP, which we initially designed to support the Cosmos SDK Launchpad, and we invite the entire Cosmos community to test and provide feedback.How can it be executed?We have created a solution thinking broadly to be used in different use cases. The simpler one is to execute the standalone application that will communicate with a running node, preferably locally (but not enforced). But we know that some applications would prefer this service be embedded into their own application binaries. That is why we have abstracted the service in the code to provide the option to be instantiated via code. You can take an example reading the main.go in the repository.InstructionsHow to install the Rosetta API Standalone gatewayClone the repo$ git clone -b v0.1.0 Install the tool:$ cd cosmos-rosetta-gateway$ make install3. Make sure you have GOBIN properly configured, then execute:$ crg --helpTesting the APIRequirements: Any chain that uses the Cosmos SDK version 0.39.1 should work. (If not please open an issue). We will use Starport tool to scaffold and run a blockchain application and test against it. Here we go!Create an application:$ starport app$ cd blog$ starport serve --verboseThese 3 commands should initiate a blockchain to run on your machine.2. Look for flags:-prefix: This flag is important, as not every cosmos blockchain uses the default “cosmos” prefix. For example, for IOV blockchain we would use `-prefix star`.-blockchain and -network: These flags allow you to change the name of your blockchain application and the network name. These values are used by Rosseta in the network’s list endpoint. For example, for Bitcoin you would set ` — blockchain bitcoin — network mainnet`.-app-rpc and -tendermint-rpc: As default this point to localhost:1317 and localhost:26657. But you can put the endpoints that you need for testing. Remember that in Rosetta’s spec is mentioned that they should not talk with an external service when packing it to a Dockerfile.-port: By default the Rosetta service listens on 8080, use the one that works better for you.3. Execute the application:$ crgIf everything went well we will have our service listening at port 8080.Pulling DataOn top of the endpoints that are documented in the official Rosetta site, we have prepared a basic Postman collection in order to help with testing and using the endpoints, that you can find here. Link.ConclusionThe vision of Cosmos has always been to become a major part of the Interchain, a network of interoperable and scalable blockchain token economies. With Rosetta API, the integration of new blockchains and cross blockchains apps becomes a much easier experience for developers as it’s standardizing operations that allow different systems to better work together.Also, with the upcoming Stargate upgrade, we will be expecting Exchanges to be able to use IBC as a way to simplify listing. Link.Today, we are happy to provide the first Rosetta API MVP for the community to be able to test and to integrate into their apps. As this is the first release, some things are still pending and will be added with the upcoming integrations,For now, we have added support for Cosmos Launchpad chains and MsgSend transaction types.We would love to receive feedback! Don’t hesitate to contact us in the dedicated Cosmos discord channel.Rosetta API for Cosmos SDK was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 10. 01

3 Reasons Why you Want to T...

Cosmos Stargate aims to deliver the promise of interchain communication among hundreds of independent blockchains. Imagine a blockchain that is able to create and exchange assets among many other blockchains in the Universe. In order to participate in that new economy, infrastructure providers in the Cosmos ecosystem including wallets and exchanges will need to achieve readiness at testnet and before mainnet. Below, we outline three critical reasons why Cosmos infrastructure players need to test the latest version of Stargate Testnet as we head to mainnet.You want to verify whether Amino to Protobuf May Break Your IntegrationsAmino is no longer the way to generate queries on Cosmos. Cosmos Stargate will now feature the new protobuf gRPC endpoints. Although current AMINO endpoints will still be supported for a limited time, this is the beginning of the end. To make sure that your team is not left behind, simply start pointing your Cosmos queries against. is available to test today. Also, it’s important to start the switch as new features such as Interchain Blockchain Protocol (IBC) queries are not supported in AMINO and are only available in gRPC.You want to create Cosmos assets todayThere’s no reason to wait until mainnet to start creating assets on the Cosmos. Stargate Testnet-3 brings digital asset creation on the Cosmos today. Digital assets are powering the current interest in memes and NFTs that are now making up the latest aspect of DeFi. Cosmos infrastructure players should test their ability to create digital assets on the Cosmos today as the new business opportunities will be explored by teams not willing to wait.You want to signal your readiness to the Cosmos now.Users are not waiting for their infrastructure providers to be ready to leverage Cosmos Stargate features. They will go to the providers that are already implementing new digital asset interactions. Cosmos Stargate Testnet-3 is your way to signal to your users and the greater Cosmos community that you are Stargate Ready. Go to and check off your company’s Stargate Testnet Readiness. If there are any features that proved troublesome, simply come into the #stargate channel on Discord.ConclusionCosmos Stargate-3 Testnet is the upgrade readiness testnet for the Cosmos universe. We are nearing feature freeze and final release candidates, but you want to start taking advantage of Cosmos Stargate today. Check out our testnet download instructions here and report your testnet readiness here: Let’s go!Cosmos is committed to confirming that existing services have tested against stargate-3 before we submit a governance proposal for a final upgrade.3 Reasons Why you Want to Test Cosmos Stargate Today was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 09. 23

3 Reasons Why you Want to T...

Cosmos Stargate aims to deliver the promise of interchain communication among hundreds of independent blockchains. Imagine a blockchain that is able to create and exchange assets among many other blockchains in the Universe. In order to participate in that new economy, infrastructure providers in the Cosmos ecosystem including wallets and exchanges will need to achieve readiness at testnet and before mainnet. Below, we outline three critical reasons why Cosmos infrastructure players need to test the latest version of Stargate Testnet as we head to mainnet.You want to verify whether Amino to Protobuf May Break Your IntegrationsAmino is no longer the way to generate queries on Cosmos. Cosmos Stargate will now feature the new protobuf gRPC endpoints. Although current AMINO endpoints will still be supported for a limited time, this is the beginning of the end. To make sure that your team is not left behind, simply start pointing your Cosmos queries against. is available to test today. Also, it’s important to start the switch as new features such as Interchain Blockchain Protocol (IBC) queries are not supported in AMINO and are only available in gRPC.You want to create Cosmos assets todayThere’s no reason to wait until mainnet to start creating assets on the Cosmos. Stargate Testnet-3 brings digital asset creation on the Cosmos today. Digital assets are powering the current interest in memes and NFTs that are now making up the latest aspect of DeFi. Cosmos infrastructure players should test their ability to create digital assets on the Cosmos today as the new business opportunities will be explored by teams not willing to wait.You want to signal your readiness to the Cosmos now.Users are not waiting for their infrastructure providers to be ready to leverage Cosmos Stargate features. They will go to the providers that are already implementing new digital asset interactions. Cosmos Stargate Testnet-3 is your way to signal to your users and the greater Cosmos community that you are Stargate Ready. Go to and check off your company’s Stargate Testnet Readiness. If there are any features that proved troublesome, simply come into the #stargate channel on Discord.ConclusionCosmos Stargate-3 Testnet is the upgrade readiness testnet for the Cosmos universe. We are nearing feature freeze and final release candidates, but you want to start taking advantage of Cosmos Stargate today. Check out our testnet download instructions here and report your testnet readiness here: Let’s go!Cosmos is committed to confirming that existing services have tested against stargate-3 before we submit a governance proposal for a final upgrade.3 Reasons Why you Want to Test Cosmos Stargate Today was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 09. 23

Distribution Curves — A tho...

Distribution Curves — A thought piece on Cryptoeconomics and DeFiAbstractIn the evolving world of cryptoeconomics, one tool that has always been of interest from the early curation market primitives is the bonding curve. They have been modified and used in AMM’s (automatic market makers) and CFMM’s (constant function market makers) with popular tools like Uniswap, and in fact implemented in real world use cases such as speculating on collectibles and novelty items. Though since their initial popularity around 2017, it had been difficult to find more practical use cases of bonding curves which had certain tendencies to incentivize ponzi-scheme-like behavior and over speculation. Somewhere along the lines, it seemed interesting to harness some of the dynamic nature of these instruments while applying a rate to limit the desire to overspeculate. This paper proposes the idea of a modified version of the bonding curve that issues tokens that receive value from fixed income cash flows. I wish to call these instruments Distribution Curves.IntroductionWhen bonding curves are interconnected with a fixed income generating asset, an equilibrium exists within the system dynamic in which the price increase from additional buyers into the bonding curve is slowed down due to a decrease in yield of the fixed income component of the curve to the point in which you encounter an equilibrium between price and yield.Equilibriums form based on economic incentives around the speculative price of a token issued from a bonding curve, and the yield that the token receives from sources such as fixed income, staking rewards or project revenue. The equilibrium ranges can create micro economies within the interactions of bonding curves and yielding instruments.What is a bonding curve? (Feel free to skip to the next section if this is a review)Bonding curves are a cryptoeconomic primitive originally introduced by Simon De La Rouvier during his exploration of curation markets and the use of game theoretical mechanisms to incentivize certain behaviors within a token economic ecosystem as well as through research done at Bancor in creating their Smart Token issuance system. These cryptoeconomic primitives were designed towards achieving certain dynamics such as continuous token issuance models that avoided the inconsistencies and fallacies of fundraising tools such as ICO’s, while still allowing for the issuance of tokens in a usable and economic activity driven fashion.Dynamics of these curves can be found here: basic premise relies on a few key concepts:Tokens are issued on a continuous basis. There is no fixed initial supply limit. A user can purchase tokens, through a smart contract designed to issue tokens. You put in some asset, you get a token; you put in more crypto and you get more tokens.The price to buy an additional token in the system increases and is determined by an algorithmic curve that is a function of the supply (We will refer to these as Constant Pricing Functions) eg. as supply increases, price per token increases.An example formula would be price = supply * 2; exponential and logarithmic formulas can also be used for the Constant Pricing Functions to reflect the difference in velocity of the price/supply relationship.When new buyers emerge, the supply responds to the demand (based on the function) and creates the exact amount of token in need.The price to purchase a new token from the bonding curve is also algorithmically determined by total supply multiplied by 2 based on the price = supply * 2 example.Users are able to sell their tokens back into the system at the current price of the bonding curve algorithm.If a user purchased the token when the supply was low, and then sells the token once the supply reaches a higher state, then they make a profit from the price appreciation that complemented the supply increase.From Tokens 2.0: Curved Token Bonding in Curation MarketsThe key feature that makes this model useful is that the bonding curves can be overlaid into various types of applications. One concept revolves around appending a bonding curve into a non-fungible token where additional tokens can be issued from the non-fungible token, which will become fungible again. This can be categorically determined as a refungible token. a product, bonding curves were a very interesting tool for speculating and curating artwork or placing emphasis on certain NFT’s. A few initial use cases:SignallingCuratingDispensing tokens in a continuous processUnfortunately, the plain vanilla bonding curves proposed in 2017 proved difficult to practically implement because they were designed primarily to incentivize speculation in areas like curation markets.Bonding Curves Going ForwardIt is now 2020 and throughout the years, curation market tools including bonding curves and token curated registries have found difficulty in achieving mass adoption.The method proposed here is to combine the concept of a bonding curve with a constant stream of payments. Historically, bonds and debt instruments can be constructed with various permutations of complexity, though at the end of the day, these instruments all boiled down into relatively simple cash flows. In this paper, I propose the dynamic of combining the use of bonding curves with one of the oldest financial instruments in the world: the fixed income product.The concept revolves around the idea of digitizing a fixed income cash flow. We will not go into significant detail, though the general idea of implementing an amortizing fixed income instrument (loan, lease, bond, debt etc…) would be:Create a digital representation of the instrumentConvert the monthly principal and interest cash payments into a digital trustConvert payments into stablecoins that will be distributed to token holdersAdd bonding curveIn this mechanism, consider a scenario such as this:Loan A was just issuedLoan A pays payments of principal and interest equaling $215 USD every monthLoan A is expected to make these payments for 5 yearsEnter bonding curve:[1] The Constant Pricing Function from a bonding curve is used to issue tokens that receive that $215 USD per month cash flow pro rata between all the tokens issued[2] For simplicity, let’s use the price = supply * 2If supply is 1, price is 2; if supply is 2, price is 4; if supply is 3, price is 6 etc…As supply of tokens increases, the price increases linearly[3] The way this contract works is that the token holders will receive that $215 USD fixed income payment distributed pro rata between each other in proportion to tokens held.In this mechanism, as the supply of tokens increases, each token will receive a smaller piece of the $215 USD fixed income.Eg. if the supply of tokens was 1 and the price of tokens was $2 USD, having $215 USD of fixed income allocated directly to that 1 token results in a tremendous yield to an investor.As supply of tokens increases, the amount distributed per token decreasesIn this ecosystem, token purchasers will have two incentive schemes for wanting to purchase tokens early.1) They wish to buy tokens early because as subsequent buyers enter into the bonding curve (increasing the supply of tokens), the price per token will concurrently increase, resulting in a return for early buyers.2) Early on, the yield per token will be substantially higher because the amount of fixed income generated (based off of the principal and interest payments from the digitized loan) will be evenly distributed among the existing supply of tokens. Smaller token supply means more pro rata distribution of the initial fixed income return.One problem of the originally proposed bonding curve is that there was never really an incentive to sell tokens except for the fact that holders were tired of speculating, and they wanted to lock in some of their gains. Or perhaps they were no longer interested in the artwork or NFT they were curating and wished to sell the token back. Such incentive is likely to drive price volatility and is not helpful to create a balanced equilibrium of buyers and sellers into a bonding curve.In this modified version, as the supply of tokens increases, the yield per token will decrease as the same amount of fixed income will be distributed pro rata among a larger supply of tokens. This yield degradation is enough of an incentive to cause participants to stop speculating and start judging the economic incentive of holding the token. Early investors who were attracted by high yields will no longer be attracted by the lower yields at high token supplies. Therefore there will be enough incentive to sell back into the bonding curve as yields become unattractive.EquilibriumIn bonding curves, users are incentivized to purchase tokens early as well as to convince others to buy tokens later which will subsequently result in price increases in the tokens (as a ponzi scheme would be designed to do). Though in this fixed income distribution model, as the price and supply of the token increase, the yield that gets allocated to token holders decreases because of the pro rata distribution of the fixed income.The theoretical phenomenon that should occur would be an equilibrium range of price and yield per bonding curve instrument. As the supply of the token increases, price increases (based on the constant pricing function of the bonding curve) though yield decreases. As yields become unattractive, earlier buyers of the fixed income tokens will sell their tokens into the bonding curve at a profit, thus decreasing the supply and price of the fixed income token, and increasing the yield. As higher yields result from selling, the instruments will be attractive investments again, and buy pressure will increase the price and supply, while concurrently decreasing the yield. These counterbalancing forces create a cycle/feedback loop where there should be a natural equilibrium that forms.Figure — Shows a theoretical bonding curve plus yield calculations where initial token supply begins at 100 and price increases based on Constant Pricing Function: price = supply/10. When you juxtapose a graph of the price/token data as a function of the supply alongside a graph of the yield/token as a function of the supply, you should be able to discern a range of prices and yields that buyers and sellers coordinate around.Future Use CasesWe have always discussed the idea around staking derivatives in relationship to Interchain Finance (plus DeFi) in the Cosmos ecosystem, and one thing to explore is whether the fixed income component, could be replaced with any constant stream of payment such as the staking yield that you would expect from a proof of stake network or revenue from a business. The basic premise is that one could take a chunk of atoms, and delegate them. The staking rewards can be siphoned to a pool. Claim of those rewards is distributed based on the token issued via the distribution curve. This would create a new dynamic between bonding curves and any form of continuous payment.Future work will also take into consideration concepts like default & credit risk among fixed income payments and slashing risks around proof of stake networks. Generally the idea is to have predictive models and risk parameters on the reliability of the fixed income components that Distribution Curve token buyers would expect to receive.There is also interest in further exploring work such as what has been published via the Gauntlet team to identify these risk components:, we think that much innovation can come from Distribution Curves and how they are applied to the modern world of new cryptoeconomic primitives. This mechanism could create new relationships for any source of consistent income.Wanted to thank folks for their friendly acknowledgements and feedback: Mingfang Duan, Ryan Yi, Dmitriy Berenzon, Sunny Aggarwal, Dogemos Lee, Jim Yang, Ashwin Ramachandran, Billy Rennekamp, and Chjango UnchainedReferences Curves — A thought piece on Cryptoeconomics was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 09. 22

ICF Update — Sept 22nd

ICF Update — Sept 22ndWelcome to the second edition of our bi-weekly update! We’ll be using this space to highlight some of the more exciting activities that took place at the Interchain Foundation over the last two weeks. This will include some check-in meetings that occurred with various funding recipients as well as general meetings and goings-on that members of the Interchain ecosystem might find interesting and informative. If any of the updates are especially relevant to what you are working on feel free to drop us a line at you missed the last update, check it out at ICF Update — Sept 7.Atlas — Cosmos SDK Module RegistryCore Cosmos SDK contributor, Aleksandr Bezobchuk (AKA Bez), kicked off work on Atlas, the long anticipated Cosmos SDK Module Registry. This work will be similar to the Node Package Manager Registry ( and the Rust Package Registry ( but for Cosmos SDK modules. It will allow developers to register and organize git repos containing Cosmos SDK modules. The registry will contain relevant metadata like which version of the Cosmos SDK the module relies on and a Command Line Interface to assist in importing the modules into your project. This will make it much easier for developers to keep track of all the various capabilities that are available for the Cosmos flagship blockchain developer kit.Trust Graphic Novel UpdateAs part of the Q4 2019 funding cycle, Chief Nyamweya & Anne Connelly received a grant to support work on the Trust, a graphic novel that tells the story of Moraa, a young Kenyan woman who learns about blockchain and uses it to transform her community. They’re making great progress and just published their own update at Take a look!Agoric Alpha ReleaseAgoric released the Alpha version of their Secure Javascript smart contract platform optimized for use in Decentralized Finance (DeFi) applications. The Agoric team are the same tech luminaries who originally developed Secure ECSMAScript (SES) which allows for secure execution of javascript libraries that prevents the nightmare scenarios we’ve seen from insecure dependencies in the past. Their new platform comes with the following “DeFi legos” out of the box: fungible and non-fungible tokens, atomic swaps, covered calls, simple exchange and automated market makers. Keep an eye out for our extended blog post about the release and take a look at their announcement as well.Cosmos Swag StoreTendermint Inc. has recently launched a Cosmos swag store at It contains a long list of stylish items accentuated with flair from your favorite ATOM secured network, the Cosmos Hub. Get ahold of the stylish Cosmos dad hat if you want to be seen matching the Interchain Grants Manager (yours truly).Trail of Bits as Interchain Security ConsultantInterchain GmbH, the Berlin based team responsible for Tendermint Core, IBC and stewarding the ICF Funding Program has finalized a partnership with Trail of Bits as a security consultant. They will help run the bug bounty program, coordinate security disclosures across the ecosystem for Cosmos core technologies and advise on a general security strategy. They are long time contributors to the Cosmos ecosystem having performed various audits on the Cosmos SDK so will make short order of getting situated in their new role. We’re looking forward to drawing on their expertise in all things security related in helping us serve the needs of the wider Cosmos ecosystem.Successful Our Networks ConferenceLast September 8th — 12th ran the Toronto based Our Networks conference about the past, present, and future of building our own network infrastructures. The event brings together enthusiasts, hardware and software hackers, researchers, organizers and more to collectively explore creative and critical engagements with the Internet and alternative infrastructures. This year was online and distributed due to current pandemic related travel restrictions and socially distanced protocols. The program can be seen online here and previous years content is available here. Keep an eye out for an update from us when the 2020 content is also available online for anyone who didn’t get to tune in in real time.UX & Key Management Topic Heats UpThe last two weeks have seen an increase in discussion and interest in the topic of user experience and key management across Cosmos related technologies. The ICF has had meetings with various projects including Tendermint Inc., Chainapsis (Keplr), Lunie, Wallet Connect, Confio (CosmWasm/CosmJS), Starname (IOV), B-Harvest, Regen Network and Metamask to discuss long term strategies around improving the user experience of private key management and user authentication in the context of many interconnected blockchains. Some of this conversation relates to the Cosmos Forum post, Cosmos Hub as Universal Wallet, as well as incoming features of the Cosmos SDK as summarized in the GitHub Key Management Meta-issue. Keep an eye out for an upcoming blog post on the topic as well as new grants going towards supporting this important topic.Ethan Buchman on Fintech ImpactCosmos Network co-founder, ICF Vice President and CEO of Informal Systems, Ethan Buchman, was interviewed by Jason Pereira, award-winning financial planner, university lecturer and writer on a new episode of Fintech Impact podcast. Fintech Impact is an exploration of the fintech world where they interview different fintech entrepreneurs about what they do, their story, and what their impact is on consumers, incumbents, and the industry is as a whole.Keplr Feature Updates from ChainapsisChainapsis, creators of the Keplr browser extension and authors of ICS-27 Interchain Accounts has made a new release of experimental features for Keplr. These include support for CosmWasm smart contract interactions as well as the ability to use Keplr with arbitrary networks. Arbitrary networks means that while you’re developing your own Cosmos SDK application you can use Keplr to create and sign transactions for that network whether its running locally or remotely — just like you can point Metamask to various EVM compatible networks beyond Mainnet Ethereum. You can take a look at the new features by installing their chrome extension.Confio (CosmWasm / CosmJS) UpdatesConfio, the team building CosmWasm, the WASM smart contract module for the Cosmos SDK and CosmJS, the javascript client library for CosmWasm and the Cosmos SDK, have a slew of updates and upcoming announcements. The first of which is support within CosmJS for hardware wallet Ledger. This will allow you to access a ledger device for signing transactions created and managed by the CosmJS client library. I already mentioned that Keplr is supporting CosmWasm as an experimental feature. Other upcoming news related to the two projects is that v0.11, a new release for CosmWasm is expected soon that contains more flexible error handling and addresses issues related to staking. The CosmWasm testnet, Gaiaflex, will begin voting on Thursday, September 17th to simulate a UnifiDao proposal. There’s also an upcoming beginner class workshop on Tuesday, September 29th on state modeling & buckets.Informal Systems Co-Op UpdateInformal Systems, core contributor to IBC and Tendermint in Rust, have published a blog post on how they’re working on structuring their company with the goal of adopting a democratic structure that aims to rebalance the power dynamics between capital and labour towards something more sustainable and non-extractive; something that nurtures long term employment and real wealth creation through R&D, entrepreneurship, and innovation. If alternative governance and sustainable corporate structures are your passions then this is a must read.Thanks for catching up on our second of (hopefully) many regular updates. We’ll be working on the format to keep it brief but informative. If there are things you’d like to hear more about feel free to reach out to or ping us on Twitter at @interchain_io.See you in 2 weeks!ICF Update — Sept 22nd was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 09. 22

ICF Update — Sept 7th

ICF Update — Sept 7thToday marks two weeks since our update about the Q2 funding recipients. We’d like to use this time to begin a new bi-weekly update where we can highlight some of the more exciting activities that took place at the Interchain Foundation. This will include some check-in meetings that occurred with various recipients as well as general meetings and goings-on that members of the Interchain ecosystem might find interesting and informative. If any of the updates are especially relevant to what you are working on feel free to drop us a line at Applications ClosedAugust 31st was the last day to submit Q3 funding proposals. The application form is still open at but all applicants until November 30th, 2020 will be considered for Q4 2020 funding opportunities. Now we will begin the process of reviewing and providing feedback with applicants until the Board of Management comes up with a final list of proposals. These will be reviewed by the Technical Advisory Board who will provide comments on the proposals. Afterwards the proposals and comments are submitted to the Foundation Council which will review and ultimately decide on the outcomes of the various proposals. If all goes well this process should be the second complete cycle of the new funding program and should be complete by October 1st, 2020.Nomic Check-InWe had our regular check-in with Matt Bell and Judd Keppel from building a Bitcoin sidechain. They’ve been developing a new rust based SDK called Orga utilizing Tendermint via ABCI in order to build performant applications. They’ve been active in the Cosmos-SDK issue “What do to about IAVL” where use of merk, their rust based merkel key/value store, may end up playing a vital role in an IAVL solution. This could furthermore increase the portability of IBC across codebases.Althea UpdateAlthea has been working with the newly founded UniFi DAO in order to expedite the Peggy bridge delivery schedule. The DAO successfully raised 30,000 ATOMs that will go towards onboarding new developers and ensure the codebase becomes production ready ahead of the original schedule as funded by the ICF. Integrating the Peggy module directly into the Cosmos Hub is an exciting proposal that is gaining momentum and community support that would allow transfer of tokens from Ethereum mainnet onto the Cosmos Hub and the greater Internet of Blockchains. If you’re interested in following along, follow Althea’s blog, join the Peggy discord channel or UniFi DAO telegram group.Akash IBC Relayer MaintenanceAkash network finalized a service agreement with the ICF to support maintenance of the IBC relayer in golang. This was the relayer initially built by Jack Zampolin and Iqlusion during Game of Zones. Jack recently became VP of Product at Akash and will oversee maintenance as well as a few new features in order to be the primary relayer during the Stargate upgrade of the Cosmos Hub. Join the Stargate Discord channel to follow along.Web3 & ICF Co-Funded Simply VC’s PANIC Validator Monitoring SuiteSimply VC recently finalized a service agreement with the ICF to support the next iteration of the PANIC Validator Monitoring service. This work was co-funded by Web3 Foundation in order to ensure that Substrate validators are supported by the suite as well. The current version of PANIC requires a relatively technical installation and interface process while the new version is a web based, user friendly version that offers a variety of insights and integrations to give validator operators and network data providers deep insights into the state of various proof of stake networks.NFT & Metadata Working Group Led by ixo & Persistence OneLast Friday, September 4th, was the kick-off call for the new NFT & Metadata working group being led by ixo and Persistence One (video here + passcode “GF+aP4EE” & blog post here). They recently finalized a joint service agreement with the ICF to do spec design and development of the NFT Module as well as a new Metadata module that will allow a rich system for asset introspection and management of capabilities across blockchains. That means not only will you have basic NFT information available like Name, Image and URI but also provide a format for information like whether the NFT can be transferred, burned or sold. This metadata module should be furthermore useful outside of strictly NFT contexts as a standalone module that can augment any number of other modules and their capabilities. The call was joined with presentations by NFT users IRIS Network, Regen Network and Left Gallery. To take part in the discussion join the discord channel on the Cosmos Community Discord.Lunie Notification SupportWe recently had a check-in call with Jordan Bibla, CEO of the Lunie Wallet for Staking and Governance. They’ve been hard at work adding support for Polkadot as well as incorporating a new notification system. This feature is really great, I tried it out with an account I use for testing and saw that one of the 0% commission validators I staked too were incrementing the commission rate on a daily basis. I would have never been monitoring this so closely and their system made it immediately apparent.Left Gallery Pair Programmingleft gallery’s Harm van den Dorpel and Alberto Granzotto, previously of Ascribe and BigchainDB stopped by the Interchain GmbH offices for a pair programming session with Billy Rennekamp and Sam Hart to kick off their development of the Cosmos SDK interaction of They’ll be working on a semi-custodial module system to allow delegated management of certificates of authenticity for digital artworks.Dystopia Labs and 2020 Cosmos ConferenceDystopia Labs finalized a service agreement this week with the ICF to begin work planning the 2020 Cosmos conference to take place Sat Dec 12th — Sun Dec 13th. We’re excited to be working with Hsin-Ju who has done fantastic work on previous events DeFi Discussions, Trust-Less 2020 & Liquidity2020. Keep an eye out for more details as this work develops and we finalize the speaker list! You can already ensure you stay up to date by signing up at for catching up on our first of (hopefully) many regular updates. We’ll be working on the format to keep it brief but informative. If there are things you’d like to hear more about feel free to reach out to or ping us on Twitter at @interchain_io.See you in 2 weeks!ICF Update — Sept 7th was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 09. 10

Leading Interoperability Pr...

Cosmos Network Partners with Persistence One to launch ‘HackAtom India: Build the Cosmos’“The stars will never be won by little minds; we must be big as space itself” -Robert A. HeinleinPersistence One is thrilled to announce that we have partnered with Cosmos Network, to launch ‘HackAtom India: Build the Cosmos’, the first virtual Cosmos Hackathon to give developers in India a chance to begin their journeys into the Cosmos ecosystem.HackAtom is the annual flagship Hackathon hosted by Cosmos. The aim of HackAtom is to encourage developers in the Blockchain ecosystem to build blockchains and applications using Cosmos’ technology stack.HackAtom India calls for developers in India to build DeFi projects, interoperable applications, and Developer tools using Cosmos’ technology stack and modules such as Ethermint, Cosmwasm, IBC protocol and many more.Persistence One is a strong advocate of Interoperability and the Indian blockchain ecosystem. We have been working closely with developer groups and institutions in India to drive mass adoption of blockchains and cryptocurrencies. HackAtom India will give a major boost to the Indian blockchain ecosystem and we will witness the Internet of blockchains shaping up the way we imagine it to be.ScheduleRegistrations: OpenHackAtom India begins: 4th September 2020Deadline for Submission: 4th October, 2020HackAtom India Ends: 4th October, 2020JudgesBilly Rennekamp — Grants manager, Interchain FoundationSahith Narahari — Software Engineer, TendermintDeepanshu Tripathi — CTO, Persistence OneJosh Lee — Developer Relations, TendermintWorkshopsBuilding Multi-chain Smart-contracts using Cosmwasm: Ethan FreyStarport: The fastest way to launch a Cosmos blockchain: Denis FadeevPowering DeFi using Cosmos SDK: Deepanshu TripathiLearn how to set up an Ethermint development environment and use Ethereum tooling on Ethermint: Elizabeth BinksPrizesWinners of HackAtom India will be rewarded from a pool of $10k USD in six different categories.To register and learn more, please visit India being one of the largest developer bases, we look forward to showcasing the Cosmos technology stack to Indian Blockchain developers to help them build blockchains easily with the help of Cosmos’ modular tools.About Persistence One: Persistence One is a protocol powering institutional open finance. Persistence facilitates the borrowing of Cryptoassets (Stablecoins) using Real-world Assets, such as invoices, as collateral. This bridges DeFi and traditional finance and uses the features of DeFi to solve real-world financing problems.About Cosmos Network: Cosmos is an ecosystem of sovereign, interoperable blockchains. Some of the key components of the Cosmos ecosystem are Tendermint, Cosmos-SDK, and IBC. Cosmos provides a highly modular framework that allows blockchain developers to easily develop application-specific blockchains that solve scalability, usability, and interoperability.Leading Interoperability Protocol, Cosmos Network Partners with Persistence One to launch HackAtom… was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 09. 05

Interchain standards for No...

Technical working GroupWe are excited to announce the formation of a new technical working group with a mission to develop Interchain Standards for Non-Fungible Tokens and Metadata.You are invited to join the series of 6 NFT+Metadata working group calls, which will take place every 2 weeks, starting Friday 4th September at 08:00 UTC. Sign up here!We believe Interchain Standards can build on established Internet standards, to gain broad adoption and promote interoperability between blockchains, as well as with legacy Internet protocols. These developments should be a great complement to the Inter-blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC), enabling cross-network discovery, authentication, control and usage of NFTs and their Metadata resources.This open collaboration was initiated by the Interchain Foundation and will be facilitated by ixo (The Internet of Impact) together with Persistence One (Protocol Powering Institutional DeFi).You are invited to join the series of 6 NFT+Metadata working group calls, which will take place every 2 weeks, starting Friday 4th September at 08:00 UTC.The first call will introduce this work and we will kick off with a discussion of use-cases.Participation of the Cosmos community is encouraged in the “nft-and-metadata” channel in the Cosmos’ Discord. Work in progress and requests for comments (RFCs) will be posted in the Cosmos SDK Modules Github repo.The first priorities for this group are to get collaborators onboard and to collect NFT and Metadata use-cases, against which the standards and reference implementations can be calibrated. Please spread the word to projects and people who are likely to be interested and have something to contribute. Also let us know of relevant past or current initiatives we should be aware of, so that we build on prior art and coordinate efforts across blockchain and internet communities.Our working hypothesisTokenizing real-world resources is a critical enabler for the digital economy. This is also essential for transitioning the world to more accountable, sustainable means of producing and using resources.It is now technically feasible for any uniquely identifiable physical world resource — whether tangible or intangible, to be represented in a non-fungible tokenized format. Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs) have powerful features, such as embedded rights, provenance and verifiability. The range of canonical use-cases and lists of potential features of NFTs and Metadata are growing.However, there is not yet a fully interoperable NFT standard for tokenized resources to be virtually addressed, described, authenticated, controlled or exchanged across blockchain networks and through the Internet.This Interchain project will contribute a set of interoperable open standards and reference software implementations for NFTs and Metadata. We will demonstrate how resources can be tokenized and used across networks, for a set of canonical use cases, provided by the Cosmos community.Our premise is that a standard for tokenizing resources must be based on well-established semantic Internet Standards, which can be upgraded using stateful data graphs.The NFT standard will be a special class of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Metadata standards will be based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF), for which various encodings (file formats) are possible. Ideally, the NFT and Metadata standards should be backward compatible with standard resources which are already available on the Internet.Both the NFT URI and its Metadata RDF encoding will be defined as nodes in a stateful graph. This should help establish the provenance of linked real-world resources. Encoded resources can be dereferenced for information that expands the graphs of data linkages between related resources and resource schemas. Using this linked-data format could further enrich NFT Metadata through relationships with other resources, thereby increasing the utility and value of both the NFT and its metadata resource. There is strong potential that this will increase the value of related real-world resources.Outputs of the projectWe will produce technical standards for NFTs and Metadata, which have undergone peer review by community stakeholders and experts.Reference implementations of these standards will be implemented in code as Cosmos SDK modules.A basic UI will be built for exploring NFTs and to provide verifiable displays of NFT Metadata.Client library support will be added.Guidance will be provided on how to use NFTs with the Inter-Blockchain Communication Protocol.In early 2021 we will provide developer tutorials and invite you to demonstrate your own use-cases for NFTs and Metadata, built on these new Interchain standards and the open-source software components.Please do get involved now, to help progress this exciting development. Your contributions will be welcomed and fully acknowledged!About the project leadsThis open collaboration will be spearheaded by Persistence One and ixo, working in partnership with funding and technical support from the Interchain Foundation. The ixo team will lead research and development of the technical standard for NFT Metadata, demonstrate a user interface for verifiable displays of NFT metadata and introduce a cross-chain decentralized identifier (DID) resolver. The Persistence One team will lead the development of an interface standard and reference Cosmos SDK modules for NFTs, with IBC and client library support.The mission of Persistence One is to facilitate seamless exchange of value around the world to increase the speed and efficiency of cross-border trade and financing to close the $1.5 Trillion financing gap. The need for a solution like Persistence One has never been clearer. A sizable and increasing amount of institutional capital and emerging Stablecoins are looking to generate yield. There is an ever-increasing need for MSMEs traders and businesses to access financing.Persistence One matches these needs by bridging the gap between Traditional Finance and DeFi.ixo is building the Internet of Impact as an essential digital and data technology infrastructure for Sustainable Development and the new world Impact Economy. This will deliver powerful new tools for sensing and responding to verifiable changes in the state of the world. Capital can be programmed with incentives to achieve positive future-state outcomes. Webs of trust connect people, machines and software agents to share intelligence, coordinate local actions and deliver impacts with precision.Join the discussionCosmos Discord: look for “nft-and-metadata” group, under the “modules” sectionInterchain standards for Non-Fungible Tokens and Metadata was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 09. 03

Pre-IBC Hackathon—Get Your ...

IBC is coming. Come and hack on it before it gets shipped on Cosmos Hub mainnet.HackAtom V ScheduleApplication open: Sept 2nd, 2020 @ 8am PSTHackAtom officially begins: Friday Oct 16th @ 12pm PSTDeadline for submissions: Friday Oct 30th @ 12pm PSTWinners announced: Friday Nov 6th @ 12pm PST👉 Apply at 👈Rules & GuidelinesThere are no limits on team size.Look to the participants section in DevPost to find teammates and introduce yourselfNo outside work or work that was started prior to the official start date of the hackathon is allowed. Cannot use work from someone outside of your team who is also competing. Judging is based only on the work done during the duration of the hackathon. Using work that was done before the hackathon is grounds for disqualification.It is encouraged to to use pre-existing open source tools and libraries.Asking for guidance or advice from someone not on your team is encouraged.Submission GuidelinesAll projects must be submitted at by Friday Oct 30th @ 12:00 pm PT.Can submit work in multiple prize categories. Be sure to submit to every prize category your team wants to compete in.All submissions must be completed during the duration of the hackathon. Teams can form ideas before the hackathon, but the code, hacks, and prototypes must be built during the hackathon.A presentation file must be included with your submission. The goal is to explain your project to the judges. A pdf, google slide, youtube video, or other medium will be accepted and judged.PrizesPrize Pool$50K USD valued in ATOMs. The spot price of ATOM will be taken on the last day of the hackathon, on Oct 30th, where the day’s ‘High’ value will be used.There will be three (or more) winners in each category except for the Community Choice Award, where there will only be one winner (the team that gets the most votes). The prize pool breakdown for each category is as follows:CategoriesGringotts award: Best Interchain Finance using Cosmos Hub & IBC$20K prize pool valued in ATOMWormhole award: Best use of Cosmos to provide Ethereum interoperability using Peggy or Ethermint$10k prize pool valued in ATOMGalileo award: Most creative/novel application-specific blockchain developed using Cosmos SDK, Tendermint, and/or IBC$8k prize pool valued in ATOMGaia award: Best go to market concept for Cosmos Hub with the use of its existing modules or extending its functionality with new modules$9k prize pool valued in ATOMCommunity Choice Award: Registered Devpost hackers can vote for their favorite project excluding their own$3k valued in ATOM to a single community favoriteWinners will be announced the Friday after the stated deadline for submissions of HackAtom V.Resources for HackersWritten GuidesCosmos HubCosmos SDKEthermintInter-blockchain Communication (IBC)Smart Contracts on CosmosTutorials & WorkshopsBuild your First Cosmos AppCosmWasm: Editing a Smart Contract Part 1CosmWasm: Editing a Smart Contract Part 2Ethermint TutorialHow to Debut a Cosmos SDK ApplicationIBC WorkshopStarport: The Easiest Way to Build a Cosmos SDK BlockchainFor other tutorials, check out Cosmos Youtube channel.Join HackAtom V DiscordThis is the water cooler channel where hackers can post questions and get answers from mentors. There will be dedicated office hours where mentors will be online over video chat to share screens and answer questions in real time.Join us on Discord: Hackathon—Get Your Spacesuits Ready for HackAtom V was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 09. 02

Announcing the Cosmos Commu...

Greetings Cosmonaut 🖖,Earlier this year, we announced the recipients of a Cosmos Community Contributor Grant in Q1. For a bit of background behind this “grants program”, the idea came around late last year when Adriana Mihai came to me with an intriguing problem. The problem was this — we were missing good schemes that actively rewarded people for building up their parts of the Cosmos community. In an effort to gather our thoughts and identify those who had been doing some solid work in all areas pertaining to development, research, building in general, and running meetups—all without pay that whole time during year 1 of mainnet, mind you—we put together a spreadsheet with names of Cosmos contributors and what they did. Then we passed that sheet over to Interchain Foundation in hopes of getting something to fund that list of names with.After months of back and forth with the foundation lawyers, the ICF ended up deciding against sending direct contributions to recipients who were not part of their greater grants application process. It’s important for them to be conservative in the operation of the foundation where moving slow is a feature and not a bug. They did, however, allocate some funding for specific deliverables—Today in Cosmos translations—as well as budget for meetups. The need, however, to support more types of work beyond just translations and hosting meetups remained unsatisfactorily met.Ultimately, we ended up breaking down what each organization was good for, what each organization was good at, and forming a program that balanced those considerations with the needs of the community.The ICF is great at recognizing important research needs that cater to the longevity of Cosmos. They’re good as a source of funding for amounts that range from “under $10k to over $100k, depending on the scope of the project” according to the ICF. Their mission is to pursue the ends of an Internet of Blockchains — a very broad and sweeping one with a very long-term outlook. Read the Q2 funding recipients post here for a better sense of what types of projects ICF funds.In contrast, Tendermint keeps a much shorter telescope that caters to the short to medium-term needs of the network — specifically, the needs of the Cosmos Hub and the ecosystem of ATOM holders. Tendermint is fantastic at recognizing important practical integrations that are needed today in order to bridge the gap between users and Cosmos. Tendermint is able to move fast while giving smaller grants to the tune of $50 to $5000 — microgrants, if you will.All this work having been done in the background culminates today in an official Cosmos Community Contributor Microgrants program that we are very excited about and finally opening up to the public for applications. (If you have a more catchy, less lengthy name for this program, I’m all ears.) As we enter the 2020 crypto bull market, I expect to receive a tidal wave of new blood propelling themselves past the Bitcoin moon and into Cosmos out of a renewed interest in this rapidly warming market. As such, this program will allow all new and existing Cosmonauts to apply for, submit contributions, and get microgrants for in any one of these categories:This is meant to be a complementary measure until the Stargate upgrade is deployed on the Cosmos Hub. What’s lesser known about Stargate is that it includes a feature in Cosmos SDK that will allow anyone to send ATOM to the community tax pool and supplement the total funds such that governance will be able to review and fund future Cosmos community contributions with its bigger pool of funds. But before this feature is on the Hub, this program will act as the main pillar to fund community contributions and act as a framework to inform future contributions that will ultimately land on the Cosmos Governance table for the broader community to fund.🌟 Join the 🚀 Space Program 👉 👈🌟 See what else is happening in the 👉 👈And without further ado, I’m proud to announce Q2’s recipients—in no particular order.👨‍🚀 Q2 Community Contributors 👩‍🚀🗒 Will your name show up on next quarter’s list? ⭐️🚀🤠 Space Cowboys/girls go here 👉 👈Live long and prosperAnnouncing the Cosmos Community Contributor Grants Recipients of Q2 was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 08. 27

Open-sourcing the Cosmos Ne...

From the very beginning, the Cosmos community has been at the forefront of open-source technology by spearheading the development of toolkits and protocols like Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC), Tendermint Core, and the Cosmos SDK.As proponents of open-source software, we, at Tendermint, value transparency and the benefit of an extra set of eyes on our work. In this spirit, we have worked hard to build the free and vibrant developer community we see today — a place where everyone is welcomed and empowered to collaborate, discuss, and sustain knowledge transfer.We take pride that through our initiatives, we have inspired others to follow our lead and open-source their work, bringing us closer to the vision of Cosmos — a decentralized, secure, and sustainable ecosystem of interoperable networks.Today we make another step towards our common goal by open-sourcing the Cosmos website, 🚀The role of the Cosmos websiteSince its inception in 2017, the Cosmos website’s primary purpose has been to introduce the vision of the ‘Internet of Blockchains’ to a worldwide audience of developers, token holders and blockchain enthusiasts. It has played a critical role in attracting numerous developers, communicating the benefits the Cosmos architecture provides, and introducing them to the tools they need to start building Cosmos applications.In the last two years, the website has had over 2.7 million page views and over 420k visitors. Fundamentally, it has been the gateway to the ever-expanding Cosmos ecosystem we see today. ✨Number of pageviews and visitors, and top pages on — June 2018 to June 2020High-level visitor stats for — June 2018 to June 2020Open-sourcing the websiteAt Tendermint, we believe that we can create a more transparent and accountable world through open, distributed, and interoperable networks. Our work orbits around these core principles while we endeavour to provide the necessary tools to empower those who strive for the same goals.As our developer community has matured, they have provided valuable feedback and ideas to more effectively communicate the Cosmos vision. By opening up the source code to the Cosmos website, we now have a new platform to converge these ideas and address feedback in an open and transparent manner, ensuring everyone’s voice is heard.Tendermint will continue to shepherd the design and development of Cosmos websites, with support from the Interchain Foundation. The Tendermint design team is committed to building a website that will better reflect and celebrate the true nature of the fast-growing ecosystem and its thriving community. This is the first step towards that goal.What exactly have we open-sourced?Publishing our source code on GitHub gives us a chance to leverage all the excellent tools for collaboration and continuous integration that our community has to offer.At a glance, here is the current state of things:The repository of the entire website front-end has been open-sourced on GitHub.There are still some pieces yet to be open-sourced, like our data sources for events, articles, projects, and our source files for design assets. These will be made publicly available in the next few phases of development.The Cosmos brand is still trademarked by the Interchain Foundation, and some visual assets are available for use. Please be sure to adhere to the guidelines for Cosmos trademark usage.How can I contribute?We are excited to accept contributions, but bear in mind there will be many changes ahead with a full website redesign project currently underway (outlined below). In the interim, we are welcoming contributions such as:Suggestions for improving communication in our copywriting.Identifying and fixing broken links.Updating out-of-date or inaccurate content.Updating links and descriptions of projects and tools.Cross-browser bug fixes — please note that we only intend to support the latest versions of major browsers.Check out the repo on GitHub to create pull requests and issues for the above.What comes next?✨ cosmos.networkOpen-sourcing is just the first step of a momentous journey for the Cosmos website. The Tendermint design team is hard at work designing a new website with a brand new visual look-and-feel and refresh of the brand identity. Check out the new Stargate website to get an idea of where things are headed, as this website will serve the basis for development of the upcoming redesign.Moreover, with an overhaul of the site structure, we’ll be introducing new and updated content, so make sure to keep an eye on the team’s progress in the new repository for the Stargate website. Meanwhile, we are establishing processes for community contributors to provide submissions of the following:Cosmos community eventsProjects (Wallets, zones, block explorers, visualizers, tokens etc.)Development tools, modules, integrations etc.Articles, videos, and other relevant Cosmos mediaTutorials and guides⚛️ hub.cosmos.networkIn order to better inform existing and future ATOM token holders as stakeholders of the Cosmos Hub, we are nearing the completion of a new website for the Cosmos Hub. We hope that this new website will provide token holders, with all the information they need to start their Cosmos journey. Everything from token acquisition, staking information, wallets, explorers, validators will be covered — stay tuned for more.🌐 parallel with the redesign of the Cosmos website, we’re also compiling more accurate, comprehensive, and up-to-date data for projects and tools in the Cosmos ecosystem.This new data source will exist in a public repository on GitHub (cosmos/awesome), which will surface the criteria for submitting updates and new projects for review. This development is underway, in collaboration between Tendermint and Interchain GmbH.Get involvedWe want to hear your thoughts! We’re creating a new channel specifically to discuss the design and front-end development for the various Cosmos websites. Join us on Discord and take part in the conversation. 🪐See you all in Cosmos!Thanks to Nass and Josh.Open-sourcing the Cosmos Network website was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 07. 24

Launchpad — A pre-stargate ...

Launchpad — A pre-stargate stable version of the Cosmos SDKIntroducing Launchpad, a release series of the Cosmos SDK that aims to be a stable milestone for Cosmos SDK-based blockchains to use until they upgrade to Stargate.Stargate, the biggest upgrade to the Cosmos ecosystem, is coming later this year. Most of the Stargate upgrades will affect the Cosmos SDK in substantial ways, making the upgrade process more involved than for previous versions. To make this process easier for module developers, blockchain builders and client providers, we are releasing a version series of the SDK called Launchpad. It will allow SDK developers to enjoy a stable version of the framework until they are ready to upgrade.What it ContainsLaunchpad will be released as v0.39.x (starting with v0.39.0) of the Cosmos SDK. In short, it is a stabilized version of v0.38. The main addition is a fix to the IAVL pruning functionality, following the introduction in v0.13.0 of a bug whereby the state was flushed only periodically. The fix reverts IAVL to its pre-v0.13.0 behaviour where every state is committed and flushed to the disk. Launchpad also contains a number of small improvements and performance fixes. To see all the updates in v0.39.0, see the changelog.Note: If you are currently using Cosmos SDK v0.37.xor v0.38.x for your project, you should plan to upgrade to either Launchpad (v0.39.x) or Stargate, given that they contain important stability fixes for issues introduced in the aforementioned version.A migration path to StargateStargate will introduce significant breaking changes to the core SDK framework (most notably the switch from amino to protobuff as the main SDK codec) as well as many of the most widely used modules. It will also introduce new features and modules such as light clients and the upgrade module that will significantly affect the way people run full-nodes and interact with them. As a result, the upgrade process to Stargate will be more challenging than usual for SDK-based projects. To help smooth this process, the Stargate team will provide well-tested and documented migration paths from the Launchpad releases to the Stargate release.Importantly, the Launchpad series will be maintained even after the release of Stargate. Intended to be a stable release series, no new features will be introduced, but additional stability fixes and non-breaking upgrades may be incorporated if needed. This will allow projects using the Cosmos SDK to have all the time they need to upgrade to Stargate.How to upgrade to LaunchpadThe first version in the Launchpad series is released as v0.39.0 of the Cosmos SDK, a breaking upgrade from previous versions. Be sure to check the changelog in order to be aware of all the changes you might need to take into consideration when upgrading your chain to Launchpad.As for upgrading full-nodes, you can find a guide here.Next StepsGoing forward, Launchpad will be primarily managed by Ethan Frey (Confio), Cory Levinson (Regen Network) and Alessio Treglia (Tendermint). It is already being used in testnets by IRISnet, Ethermint,, IOV and more.If you would like to suggest any addition for following releases, please open an issue on the Cosmos SDK repository with the 0.39 Launchpad tag. If you have any other questions, feel free to join the Launchpad channel on the Cosmos Community Discord.Launchpad — A pre-stargate stable version of the Cosmos SDK was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 07. 20

Preparing for IBC 1.0

by Interchain GmbHIntroductionThe upcoming Stargate upgrade will include version 1.0 of the Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol (IBC), the mechanism for interoperability between heterogeneous chains, which forms the connective substrate for the Cosmos Network. IBC has been in design and development since the release of the original Cosmos whitepaper. In suitable fashion for a technical interoperability protocol, interoperability between many organizations and individual contributors has been essential in bringing IBC to where it is today — Tendermint, Agoric, Informal Systems, Chorus One, Iqlusion, Interchain GmbH, and the Interchain Foundation have all contributed resources & personnel to the design, specification, and implementation of IBC. Many community contributors outside of those organizations have found bugs, submitted specification proposals, and provided invaluable quality assurance testing for the software. The 1.0 release of IBC is the culmination of years of diligent work by these organizations & individuals, but it is also the beginning of the next chapter in the trajectory of the Cosmos Network, and the inflection point at which the driving force behind protocol development & adoption must shift from a relatively tight-knit coalition of firms to a much wider community of blockchain developers, proof-of-stake validators, and protocol users.This blog post outlines what the 1.0 release of IBC will consist of, enumerates the expected sequence of steps for testing & deployment of IBC as part of the larger Stargate upgrade process, briefly catalogs ongoing IBC-related work which is not formally part of the 1.0 release process but will be of interest soon, and sketches a few nascent ideas for the future development of IBC after Stargate & the 1.0 release, some of which will also be outlined in greater detail in a future post.Ingredients for the 1.0 IBC releaseIBC has been developed “specification-first”, meaning that we first designed & wrote down a complete, canonical specification of the abstractions & logic utilized in the protocol before writing any code. The specification is designed to provide a sufficient level of detail so that properties of the protocol can be reasoned about in the abstract, and so that implementations in different languages or frameworks which are faithful to the types & procedures in the specification will correctly realize these properties and interoperate seamlessly with each other. The IBC specification is available in full form on Github and in condensed form as a paper. The 1.0 IBC release will include a canonical 1.0 specification version, which can be implemented by any blockchain for specification-compliant IBC support.The first implementation of the IBC protocol has been developed in Golang using the Cosmos SDK. This implementation adheres to the aforementioned specification and includes dynamic capabilities for runtime port & channel permission management, Tendermint light clients for interoperation with any Tendermint blockchain, solo machine clients for interoperation with solo machines identified by a public key, a generalized Merkle proof system for integration with different back-end blockchain data stores, and an ICS-20 module for cross-chain fungible token transfer. If you are interested in playing around with the Go code or integrating it into your blockchain, check out the documentation. The 1.0 IBC release will include a specification-compliant 1.0 IBC implementation in the Cosmos SDK, which can be imported directly by any Cosmos SDK for plug-and-play IBC support.In order to facilitate data transport between sovereign chains, IBC requires the existence of off-chain relayer processes, which monitor the state of chains for outgoing packets and submit them to the appropriate destinations. Anyone with accounts to pay transaction fees and the ability to monitor state & submit transactions can be a relayer, and in order to automate the logic involved, we have developed a Golang relayer which can automatically set up light clients, run the handshake process to create connections & channels, and scan & relay IBC packets from one chain to another. The 1.0 IBC release will include a specification-compliant 1.0 Golang relayer release, which can be easily configured & operated by anyone wishing to relay IBC packets.IBC pre-flight check sequence ✈️Interchain GmbH is currently in the final steps of testing & finalizing the Golang IBC implementation in the Cosmos SDK, with a particular eye towards ensuring that future upgrades, both of blockchains utilizing the IBC protocol and of the IBC protocol itself, can proceed smoothly with minimal disruption to users. Once complete, this work will be released in Cosmos SDK v0.40, in conjunction with Tendermint v0.34, as described in the Stargate Upgrade Proposal.The Stargate upgrade bundles together a lot of changes, and it will likely be necessary to go through several release candidates and intensive sequences of testnets in order to ensure that the software is ready to deploy to production. The first Stargate testnets will focus mostly on preparing users & integrated services for the protobuf encoding changes, but zones and potential relayers will be able to individually start preparing for IBC integration and test out the release candidate software if they wish. A public bug bounty program will be operated for any bugs found in the aforementioned IBC specification & software release candidates. Subsequent Stargate testnets will specifically focus on multi-chain IBC interoperation. Zones that wish to support IBC are highly encouraged to participate. Finally, the Stargate testnet sequence will test the non-disruptive in-place upgrade sequence using the Cosmos SDK upgrade module and ensure that it does not disrupt in-progress IBC operation in a multi-chain topology.Once stable software releases are achieved, and all tested features & sequences operate smoothly, a final upgrade proposal can be prepared for the Cosmos Hub which will execute a halt-restart upgrade to atomically switch from the current software to the Stargate release at a set height, similarly to how previous Hub upgrades have been performed. Stakeholders should carefully evaluate any such proposal, test the software themselves, and make an informed judgment as to the readiness of the software before voting.If the Cosmos Hub decides to pass the final Stargate upgrade proposal, clients, connections, and channels will be enabled on the Hub along with the upgrade, facilitating set-up and testing with other chains that have also integrated the IBC implementation. Initially, ICS-20 cross-chain fungible token transfers will be disabled, in a similar fashion to how transfers were initially disabled when the Cosmos Hub first launched. Once Hub stakeholders are confident that the protocol is secure and safe to use, a second parameter-change proposal will be able to activate cross-chain transfers, after which tokens will be able to be sent to the Hub from any IBC-compatible chain, and from any IBC-compatible chain to the Hub. Because of the ability of the IBC protocol to safely handle dynamic chain topologies, it is not necessary to specify ahead of time any particular list of chains — the process of setting up a connection and a channel for token transfers is permissionless and does not expose any users who choose not to use that connection or channel to the fault risk of the counterparty chain.At this point, the possibilities for interoperability are dependent not on the Hub or on the Stargate upgrade process, but on the integration of IBC by other chains, which they can do at their own pace, electing to use the Cosmos software implementations or not as they prefer. IBC is experimental, alpha software, and should be integrated & tested carefully before deployment. All usage of IBC is at your own risk. We encourage chains to ensure that user-facing software such as wallets or browser extensions clearly describes the risks and security model to users when performing any cross-chain operations.Ongoing IBC-related workWe have intentionally elected to keep the scope of the Stargate release, already a large coordination effort, no larger than absolutely necessary, but a lot of fantastic IBC work is proceeding in parallel on independent timelines. This is by no means an exhaustive list.Informal Systems is working on formal verification of the IBC protocol, including handshakes, packet send & receive logic, light client behavior, and the relayer algorithm, with the model checker TLA+Informal Systems is also working on a complete IBC core protocol implementation and a complete IBC relayer implementation, both in RustConfio is working on an integration of IBC handler logic into their WebAssembly smart contract system, which runs on the Cosmos SDK and comes with JS client supportChainapsis is working on the specification and implementation of the interchain account protocol, which will allow an account on one blockchain to control an account on another blockchain using IBCChorus One is working on a Tendermint light client and Substrate light client, both in Rust and designed for compilation to WebAssembly & usage with IBCAlthea is working on Peggy, a bridge from the Ethereum network to a Cosmos SDK-based blockchain which in conjunction with IBC will bridge the Cosmos & Ethereum ecosystemsAgoric is working on the integration of IBC into the Agoric platform for secure smart contracts written in JavascriptChainSafe is working on the integration of IBC into Ethermint, which will allow EVM applications to run on Tendermint chains and connect to the Cosmos network over IBCCdot is working on an implementation of IBC in Substrate (Rust), a GRANDPA client, and maintaining Chinese translations of the ICS specificationsAkash is helping with maintenance of and working on features for the Golang relayerNomic is working on a Bitcoin two-way peg / sidechain & Tendermint light client in JSToo many teams to list are helping test the software in incentivised testnets and find bugs prior to launchFuture directionsThe 1.0 release, in conjunction with expected additional software releases later this year, marks an inflection point in the trajectory of IBC development: going forward, the successful adoption of IBC as an open, permissionless standard will be determined by the choices of sovereign blockchains, operators, and users. The core protocol is just the beginning — interoperability between applications over IBC will also depend on application-level standards describing particular packets, data encoding, and processing logic (such as ICS 20 & ICS 27). Additional implementations of IBC in different languages & frameworks will reduce the barrier-to-entry to the ecosystem and allow a diversity of heterogeneous use-cases to proliferate. New light clients & state verification procedures will enable different consensus algorithms and state machines to speak IBC. Protocol stacks on top of IBC, such as cross-chain validation, will provide advanced functionality and new security models composed of the primitives provided by the core protocol. Post-1.0 protocol versions may incorporate alternative causal ordering guarantees, new channel types, and automatic multi-hop routing. Future work on IBC will necessarily be a collective effort, emergent from a process of rough consensus-building and resource contributions by a multitude of organizations and individuals. We can’t wait to see what you’ll build.You can follow IBC progress on Github, Twitter, Discord, or here on Medium.Preparing for IBC 1.0 was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 07. 16

Cosmos Stargate Upgrade Ove...

Introducing Stargate, the largest Cosmos upgrade yet. Stargate will enable higher transaction throughput, cross-chain transactions, accelerate UI development, and so much more.At a GlanceJoin the Cosmos Stargate announcements channel!If you’re running a block explorer, wallet, exchange, validator, or any other service (eg. custody provider) that depends upon the Cosmos Hub or Cosmos ecosystem, you’ll want to pay attention, because this upgrade will involve substantial changes.Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC)- cross-chain transactionsProtobuf Migration — blockchain performance & dev accelerationState Sync — minutes to sync new nodesFull-Featured Light ClientsChain Upgrade Module — upgrade automationHelp us to get the word out -this is a major leap for the Cosmos Network and we want everyone on board 🚀Cosmos Hub to Lead the Stargate UpgradeIn December 2019, the Cosmos Hub’s only major upgrade delivered new power to ATOM stakers by way of governance: parameter changes and community spending. Prior to the Cosmos Hub 3 upgrade, the chain had to be halted to change economic parameters, which can now be changed via governance proposal. Importantly, funds from the community pool can be spent via governance proposal, a powerful tool to accelerate Cosmos Hub development.Currently, we have a stable network with a strong set of Cosmos Hub validators. We have a functioning governance system with strong participation, and we have used our community pool to fund two projects. However, the Hub is still independent from the rest of the Cosmos ecosystem, and the Hub was designed to connect the Cosmos ecosystem together.The next step is the Stargate upgrade, coming later this year. Stargate will improve the Cosmos ecosystem in a few major ways. Perhaps one of the most well-known benefits being delivered in Stargate is the ability to connect Cosmos-based chains together using Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC), and the Cosmos Hub will be leading the way for the Stargate upgrade.If you’ve been following the Cosmos ecosystem lately, you have likely seen an explosion of ecosystem activity in preparation for the launch of the much-anticipated IBC protocol. Stargate will usher in more than just IBC.Stargate OverviewThe Cosmos ecosystem will look to Cosmos Hub governance to vote on the features of the largest Cosmos upgrade yet. Here are the primary features:Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC)The ability to exchange transactions of value and data across compatible chainsProtobuf MigrationAccelerates front-end development and 10x to 100x better blockchain performanceA new node can synchronize 200x faster, participating in consensus in minutes rather than daysChain Upgrade ModuleEnables validators to upgrade the chain software asynchronously in minutes rather than an hour or moreIn essence, this launch will complete the roadmap laid out in the Cosmos whitepaper, as discussed by Zaki Manian ( Iqlusion). Here’s a recent Q&A: Connections via IBCCosmos’ flagship, the Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol, is set to launch with the Stargate update. IBC will mark the emergence of a much-anticipated interoperable Cosmos network: the ability to securely and trustlessly exchange data and token value across sovereign chains that support IBC. That means that 1) tokens and 2) data will be exchanged across different blockchains, and we anticipate that the Cosmos Hub will be the first to secure those cross-chain exchanges.New to IBC? Here’s a simple explainer. Want to dive deeper? IBC is being addressed in a number of spots, and here are a few places to start:IBC is what will take siloed, Cosmos-based blockchains and bring them together to make an ecosystem called the Cosmos Network.If you plan to support tokens beyond the Cosmos Hub’s ATOM with your wallet, exchange, block explorer or other application/service, check out the IBC security model (demonstrated extensively during Phase 3 of Game of Zones) in order to effectively balance novelty and safety for your users.The Cosmos Hub will strive to be the most secure and reliable hub that links them all together, with its battle-tested validator set and with the economic power of the ATOM. A truly decentralized Interchain should have no single point of failure, and hubs like the IRIS Network will also route interchain transactions.Accelerating Performance & User Interface Development via ProtobufIt could be that IBC has stolen all of the attention, or perhaps the name “Protobuf Migration” is not nearly exciting enough, but the Protobuf Migration will do a number of key things for Cosmos blockchains. Beginning with the Cosmos Hub, we’ll see significant improvements to performance, compatibility, interoperability, operability and developer ease-of-use. What does that mean?A better Cosmos future with ProtobufApplications will be way faster, gas costs will be much lower, and there will be more transactions included in each block. Applications will be more reliable and easier to create, supporting a lengthy list of programming languages. Protobuf is expected to clear the biggest bottleneck in Cosmos-one that touches every layer. Clearing this bottleneck will enable the teams working on Cosmos to see what else can be improved going forward.A performance increase of one or two orders of magnitudeWe expect transaction throughput of the Cosmos Hub (and others that upgrade) to increase by 10x to 100x. This will be very important for the Cosmos Hub to handle an ever-increasing volume of cross-chain transactions. It also makes it easier on the nodes that run the network. Around 50% of CPU time when running `gaiad` is currently spent in the encoding and decoding logic, and that’s about to change, thanks to the migration to Protobuf. And there’s more.Reliability, composability, and better UIsProtobuf will introduce a standard for composability. That means easier development of reliable front-end user interfaces (UIs) that work together with other UIs. Current UIs need an intermediate process to read/write blockchain data, which makes things slow and unreliable. Not only will web apps (in Javascript) be able to communicate directly with a Cosmos node, applications using any of the many Protobuf-supported languages will do this as well. Protobuf will be critical to attracting user interface developers who want to make great new Cosmos apps.New nodes up and running in minutes via State SyncAt 6 or 7 seconds per block, Tendermint makes new blocks very quickly. That’s great for blockchain performance, but challenging for participants that need to synchronize a new node, which can take days. This is a big problem for a validator operator that needs to replace a failed validator. The current workaround is downloading a public snapshot, which makes syncing much faster, but it’s a security risk for the validator and the network. State Sync will enable a Cosmos node to be up and running securely within minutes, not days.Full-Featured Light ClientsAccording to Zaki (Iqlusion), Tendermint’s light client security model allows full nodes to bootstrap themselves securely without waiting days to sync all past state. “As an ecosystem, we need to figure out a way to distribute light client trust roots in less than 21 day unbonding time to full nodes.” Expect more details from the Interchain GmbH team’s deep dive on the Tendermint 0.34 plan.Chain Upgrade ModuleThe initial versions of the Cosmos Hub used a flexible but painful chain halt to upgrade the blockchain. When we upgraded to cosmoshub-2 and cosmoshub-3, we stopped the Cosmos Hub for over an hour-a disruption we can’t afford as the Cosmos Network relies more and more upon the Cosmos Hub. This method of upgrade is challenging for validator operators and introduces an additional layer of risk for their operations, as well as to their delegators, who may be slashed. Thanks to the Regen Network team, this new upgrade module will automate the upgrade process to reduce the coordination complexity, potential for human error, and the demands on the validator operators to all upgrade at the same time.Stargate will enable the ability for a governance proposal to specify either an upgrade block height or time, safely shut down block production on the legacy chain, and then enable validators to opt into running the management process that seamlessly deploys the new software, migrates the state, and starts the new chain.The Regen Network has been running this upgrade process for nearly a year on their testnets and their validator community has already built up considerable experience with it. We’re anticipating a future of Cosmos Hub upgrades that are much less eventful, something we are all looking forward to.Next StepsBlock explorers, wallets, exchanges, we are asking you to schedule time in August for integration testing against the Stargate network.Validators, we are hoping that nearly all validators in the Cosmos Hub will participate in the Stargate testnet as a simulated upgrade. We are anticipating the first testnet to be July 27.Join us for the Stargate testnet to get used to this process. The Stargate team intends to run testnets and upgrades (using the Cosmos Hub genesis file) to broaden the pool of experience.Follow along on Twitter via @cosmos to ensure you don’t miss updates, and join our Discord #stargate channel to ask questions or to lend a hand, and join the Cosmos Stargate announcements channel!Get the word out on Twitter, translate and/or repost this article and others, or help us by syndicating it onto your own blog or channels. This is a major leap for the Cosmos Network and we want everyone on board 🚀Special thanks to Jack ( Akash) for hours spent with me getting this article detailed. A big thank-you to Zaki (Iqlusion) for substantial contributions and information. Thanks to Billy (ICF) and the rest of the Stargate team for helping to get this article right.Hopefully you found this useful. Feedback is always welcome! I’m on Twitter.Cosmos Stargate Upgrade Overview was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 06. 22

A tale of Game of Zones: IR...

The IRISnet team’s story of hustle, dedication, and community.Often people would ask me, “why are you, out of the hundreds of blockchains in crypto, so particularly passionate about Cosmos Network?”While the reasons are countless, there are two main reasons that come to mind:First, the Cosmos ecosystem has always pioneered in the conception and implementation of cutting-edge ideas and technologies.The success of Game of Stakes, the first proof-of-stake adversarial testnet in the crypto space, quickly taught hundreds of new Cosmonauts how to use the tools available in the Cosmos ecosystem. This led to a successful and seamless launch of the Cosmos Hub in March of the same year.The success of Game of Stakes was fully recreated in Game of Zones, an incentivized testnet intended to test the limits of IBC and discover its strengths and weaknesses ahead of launching it into production. Cosmonauts from all over the world participated in the three-phase challenge, bringing results that few expected. brings us to the second point: the people involved.Let’s be honest, when this much prize is at stake, many would have done things at any cost to have an edge over their competitors. But in Game of Zones, 150 teams not only gave their best in terms of energy and commitment, but also in helping, collaborating, supporting, and celebrating each other to excel.This is Cosmos: an international ecosystem of some of the best-in-class operators of proof-of-stake blockchains that day after day made their knowledge available to all of us Cosmonauts.So whenever somebody asks me what I love about Cosmos network, I’m always ready to answer: the genius, the courage, and the humanity of those who are part of it.And amongst the many teams that participated, one particularly stood out to perfectly embody the Cosmos spirit. That team is IRISnet.Pre-Game of ZonesEven before the start of Game of Zones was announced, the IRISnet team spent time to thoroughly analyze the IBC module and the Relayer in order to prepare for the competition that would soon follow.In doing so, not only did the team discover an inaccuracy in the Relayer implementation, but also discovered three major bugs which were documented and submitted as useful material for the Game of Zones Bug Bounty.Here is a summary of the anomalies detected by the IRISnet team:Consensus bug This bug caused the loss of memory data after a Gaia daemon restart, causing a consensus failure. It should be noted that the bug was found near end of Phase 1a. To which the team alerted the organizers. This led to the decision to repeat Phase 1 (named Phase 1b) after the problem was finally solved. You can read more about this in Tess Rinearson|Interchain GmbH’s blogpost.ICS-20 Event bug When multiple messages were contained in a single transaction, the event data would be abnormal. Specifically, the events in subsequent messages would include those of the previous messages, leading to the data being excessively large and causing a number of problems such as the relayer not being able to pick up the proper data packet via query.Unordered channel bug ICS20 packets sent through an irregular channel can be retransmitted repeatedly, causing more tokens minted on the counterparty chain than are available on the source chain.In addition, although it was not required, the IRISnet team proposed a draft of an interchain incentive mechanism, which they considered extremely important for the development of the IBC ecosystem.Beyond discovering critical bugs that existed in the codebase, the team also provided the community with concrete tools to let the Cosmonauts experience what the future of Cosmos Network post-IBC has in store for them such as the IBC implementation of Rainbow Wallet and the GoZ State Visualizer.Well, we can say the boys didn’t sit on their hands!Phase 1aAfter carefully studying the competition rules set by Cosmos Devs, the IRISnet team has effectively developed automatic tools and monitoring procedures, mostly following these points:They started their own private transmission node instead of using a public one.The automatic program would then try again independently in case of a failed transaction.At the same time, the real-time monitoring system also included a series of alarms, so that devs could intervene manually and in a prompt manner in case of need.Despite the fact that in Phase 1a, as mentioned above, a consensus bug led to significant instability of the Game of Zones Hub, the team was able to effectively deal with the problems occurred.IRISnet ranked third in Phase 1a of Game of Zones, winning the Challenge Reward.Phase 1bWith the resolution of the Consensus Bug, Phase 1b of the GoZ seemed to start with the best of premises.It wasn’t long before the IRISnet team, driven by what happened in Phase 1a, decided to go even deeper into the ICS-20 Event Bug.This led to the core developers discovering an even more critical bug than the consensus failure bug that plagued Phase 1a. The bug was likely to be able to affect the results of the GoZ Hub. Going above and beyond, the team found other issues with memory overflow, node stop, and query timeout.This could have resulted in a malicious hacker to successfully conduct an attack on the various channels at any stage of the competition.After having pointed out to the organizers that the bug was still present on the Hub, IRISnet wanted to give a concrete demonstration of it using it for an attack on the public nodes after Phase 1b ended, effectively shutting down the Game of Zones hub.Confirming the excellent results maintained by the team during both Phases 1a and 1b, IRISnet won the GoZ Liveness Reward.Phase 2The main focus of the second phase of Game of Zones was throughput.Essentially, this meant that the team that was able to relay the most amount of packets with their relayer key on the GoZ Hub and the Game of Zones network wins this round.To achieve this, developers worked to improve and optimize the relayer, mostly focusing on the following aspects:Implement automated batch sending of cross-chain transactionsImplement automated batch relaying packetsImprove query efficiency by using multi-GoRoutine in relaying packetsAdd handling of exception such as timeout and transaction failureFix the issue that made impossible to get the proof of the packets created in the latest blockWhile the official ranking of Phase 2 has not yet been released, according to the unofficial P2P Validator Leaderboard, the IRISnet team ranked fourth out of a total of 150 teams.Phase 3The main objective for Phase 3 was to stress test the security model of IBC, and the winner will be the team that executed the best confusion or deception attacks against other zones.During this phase, the team implemented a deceptive relay between the GOZ Hub and Iris Hub and simulated a series of abnormal scenarios that illustrate the consequences and effects.A demonstration of the procedures carried out to achieve this result can be found here.The IRISnet team contributed substantially to the improvement of the Cosmos SDK and the Relayer by identifying key inconsistencies. They submitted two pull requests that address the issues (1 & 2)For phase three, as for phase two, the official ranking is not yet available, but I am pleased to announce that the IRISnet team has won the “Most Innovative/Deceptive State Machine” award!Really deserved, congratulations guys!The complete list of winners can be found in the replay of the Game of Zones Closing Ceremony hosted by Jessy Irwin, Jack Zampolin and Zaki Manian.Final considerations by the IRISnet teamTo bring this summary to a close, I wanted to conduct a small interview with the IRISnet team to see what this competition meant to them.Daniela: The team submitted constant code revisions, pull requests, updates of the Visualizer and even an IBC version of the Rainbow wallet. How did the team manage to simultaneously work on so many things during Game of Zones?IRISnet Devs: In order to work effectively in each of these fields you mentioned, our team was split into 3 teams (Adversarial competition, Rainbow-GoZ Wallet, and GoZ Network State Visualizer). Thanks to this, each of us has been able to focus on our work and put all of ourselves into the task without interruption and in a completely autonomous way.Daniela: Game of Zones, like the Game of Stake a year ago, is designed to test not only the code but also the teams participating in the competition. It seems obvious that this competition led to impressive technical improvements in a very short time, many creative use cases and incubated teams that are now familiar with using the IBC module and running the relayer.What are your thoughts on this? Which things did you find the most challenging and what was the most exciting thing about the competition?IRISnet Devs: Game of Zones is a global game that lasts for 3 weeks. Participants come from different time zones and there may be various temporary situations happening in this game, so it requires us to highly focus our attention, to keep thinking. It’s definitely a huge challenge.Because the amount of data and the load carried by each node of GoZ Hub is very large, ensuring that our program can run stably was a huge challenge.At the same time, in order to compete with various excellent teams, we needed to find ways to optimize our tools to obtain a better ranking. This was a very exciting challenge for us. If you want to see in-depth the tools we used during the competition, we have made open source our command-line tool!Daniela: All the work and time invested have only one ambitious final goal: the advent of IBC. What are your final thoughts about Game of Zones and what do you think is the next step forward?IRISnet Devs: Game of Zones was a very good opportunity to participate in learning to use the IBC protocol and the relayer. In the competition, we competed with many excellent teams. We saw many excellent strategies and ideas and learned a lot.We do hope Game of Zones will build a solid foundation for the establishment and improvement of the whole Cosmos ecosystem.ConclusionThanks to the IRISnet Team, who kindly summarized the key events, the history, and the work behind their participation in the Game of Zones.Despite being very reserved and humble about their achievements, I must acknowledge their willingness to put in the extra effort and strive for excellence even in situations that may be unexpected.Congratulations to IRISnet and all the teams who participated in the Game of Zones, bringing talent, innovation and squad spirit!In this competition the real victory, the one given by the commitment to a common goal, belongs to all of us! Official Channels•Email•Website•Forum•English Telegram•Chinese Telegram•Korean Telegram•Italian Telegram•France Telegram •Twitter•Medium•Youtube•WeChat subscription: irisnetwork•WeChat group: irisnetwork2018A tale of Game of Zones: IRISnet was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 06. 12

Announcing the Cross-Chain ...

The Cross-Chain Hackathon, hosted by Gitcoin, started as a way to involve developers from around the world and give them ample time to work on their projects. After months of planning and almost one month of hacking, we’re excited to say we received over 20 total submissions! Let’s go over the winners.Cosmos Challenge Winners ($15,000 total in ATOMs)With the Cosmos challenge, we wanted to see what developers can build with the Cosmos toolkit. This includes the Cosmos SDK, IBC, Ethermint, Peggy, and CosmWasm. Here are the winners:1st place — MeiChain ($6000 in ATOMs)MeiChain is the MEI stablecoin system with a collateral debt position (CDP). There’s three blockchains working together. The Cosmos Hub users hold their ATOMs and use them as collateral for minting MEI. Next, Meichain is used to store the CDP and the MEI token itself. Lastly there’s Bandchain, which serves the ATOM/USD price feed from several exchanges to Meichain. All chains communicate to MeiChain by sending packets across the chain using IBC relayers. (view Github)2nd place — LikeCoin ISCN ($5000 in ATOMs)LikeCoin is a public blockchain for content monetization, attribution, and distribution. For this hackathon, they provided two components. 1) A Cosmos SDK module for users to record content metadata according to the ISCN specification and 2) IPFS plugins for querying and parsing this content metadata from the chain. (view Github)3rd place — Qonico ($4000 in ATOMs)Qonico is a Cosmos blockchain implementation for small IOT devices. It includes a guide, a cross-chain client using RaspberryPi, a web client and a js client. (view Github)Agoric WinnersAgoric’s winners made good use of its platform for building reusable smart contracts. They were:Grand Prize ($1000 in ATOMs)KryhaDapp — addressed the problem of plastics recyclers not knowing what kind of plastic was used to make bottles and if it was recyclable. Their solution provides a single shared source of truth for tracking product lifecycles. To do this, they used multiple reusable and cooperating contracts (five in all), with a useful UI. (View Github)Winners ($500 each in ATOMs)Time Release — a contract that transfers funds, but only after a specified amount of time has passed. It was notable for being a useful and interesting reusable component with test automation. (View Github)Bonsai Exchange — a fun sales application where users buy bonsais and plant them. It reused an existing component, wired it into a new UI, and interacted with Agoric’s wallet implementation. (View Github)Honorable Mention ($250 each in ATOMs)Goodwill — a merger of a modified Agoric encouragement dapp with the ultimatum game, a standard economics experiment to measure trust. One person makes an offer on how to divide assets, and another accepts or rejects. Acceptance means the assets are divided per the offer, rejection means both parties get nothing. This project was a start at making re-usable components for quickly building experiments. (View Github)Ice Cave — while incomplete, it made good progress towards integrating Agoric smart contracts with the Phaser gaming framework. The result is a decentralized game with non-fungible loot boxes on top of the Agoric blockchain. (View Github)Band Protocol WinnersSeveral teams provided submissions for Band’s DeFi category for the Cross-Chain Hackathon. Here are the winners:Winners (2000 BAND each)MeiChain — The MEI stablecoin system with a collateral debt position (CDP). Uses the Cosmos Hub, MeiChain, and Band’s price oracles. (View Github)CoinPriceBet — A prediction market built on the Cosmos SDK which has a frontend demo and sources crypto prices from Band’s oracles using IBC. (View Github)Honorable Mentions (500 BAND each)StakeSafe — an interface for staking any supported liquidity pools safely, with pool information coming from Band’s price oracles. (View Github)SEMA — allows users to buy second-hand items with the ATOM token by posting items, accepting the transaction, sending tokens, and exchanging tokens. (View Github)Notable TeamsFor the Cosmos challenge, several exceptional teams that provided submissions that we didn’t cover above. Each of these teams is eligible for a Cosmos T-shirt. These include:Map of Zones — a visualizer that displays a galaxy of the interconnected networks built on the Cosmos SDK with the IBC module. (View Github)AstroCanvas — a game and radical experimentation in stake decentralization. Inspired by the 2017 Reddit April Fools project r/Place, AstroCanvas takes this one step further and applies it to solving staking centralization of proof-of-stake blockchains. Delegators are given specific colorToken that represents the right to change one pixel in the canvas when they delegate their staking token to a Hub validator. The catch? Not all colorToken are the same. Delegators can earn colorToken of a specific color (white, black, red, etc) depending on the voting power of the delegated validator. So for example, validator with #1 to #10 rank in voting power gives delegators colorTokenWhite which only allows you to place a white pixel on the canvas. If you want to place a blue pixel, you need colorTokenBlue which you may only receive when you delegate to a validator with voting power ranging from #80 to #90. (View Github)OpenMarket — provides a decentralized marketplace for non-fungible tokens (NFT) trading over IBC. It’s part of the Сosmos ecosystem and can be used to trade the non-fungible asset of any blockchain in it. This is done using the IBC protocol which, among other things, allows cryptocurrency and NFTs to be transferred between blockchains. (View Github)Real Estate Exchange — a real estate trade application built on Cosmos SDK. Users have tokens and they can exchange real estate as securities. Each issuer pays dividends as another blockchain’s token to the security owners. The trade is empowered by the Cross framework, which supports a cross-chain atomic swap between blockchains connected via IBC. (View Github)CoinPriceBet — A prediction market built on the Cosmos SDK which has a frontend demo and sources crypto prices from Band’s oracles using IBC. (View Github)SEMA — allows users to buy second-hand items with the ATOM token by posting items, accepting the transaction, sending tokens, and exchanging tokens. (View Github)Cross Chain Crawler — uses Web of Trust and Google NL APIs to rate as many sites and services on various blockchains. (View Github)ConclusionThank you to everyone from Gitcoin, Agoric, Band, Interchain GmbH, Tendermint Inc, and the Interchain Foundation for helping to make this virtual hackathon a reality. We’ll be reaching out to the winners of the Cross-Chain Hackathon soon regarding KYC and tax documents along with those eligble for t-shirts. Again, thank you to all who participated!Join the Cosmos Community Discord to stay connected.The views and details expressed in this blog post are those of All In Bits Inc (dba Tendermint Inc), and do not necessarily represent the opinions or actions of the Interchain Foundation.Announcing the Cross-Chain Hackathon Winners was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 05. 25

Technical Game of Zones Upd...

There are several goals of Game of Zones: to educate the public about IBC; to stress test the system in an adversarial and competitive setting; and to shine a light on any potential vulnerabilities in the IBC protocol and implementation. Earlier this week, participants in Game of Zones successfully helped us identify a problem. It wasn’t exactly a bug in IBC, but it was a problem nonetheless. We’re excited to fix it.I’ll share more on that in a moment, but first, some context:On Monday, the Iqlusion team, which sometimes also goes by “Cosmos Devs,” posted an update to the Game of Zones challenge. In short, the timeline has been adjusted to accommodate the aforementioned problem, which popped up at the end of Phase 1. (For more details on Game of Zones logistics, please see Iqlusion’s post.)Today, I’m following up on that issue on behalf of the Interchain GmbH team, which includes the core development team for IBC. (We’re helping Iqlusion out as they administer Game of Zones.) I’ll share a deeper analysis of the bug and root cause, as well as the cross-entity next steps that we’ll be taking together, to ensure a smooth conclusion to Game of Zones, and, more importantly, a robust Cosmos Network.The BugAt the conclusion of Phase 1 of Game of Zones, participants were asked to upgrade their software to a new commit of Gaia and the Cosmos SDK, and restart their nodes. After doing so, a number of participants reported that their chains were halting, and other participants reported seeing “invalid port” errors.The Berlin-based Interchain GmbH team started investigating on Monday morning CEST, and was able to identify the problem that afternoon and merge a patch. The team then worked with community members to verify the fix across several nodes. That night, the Iqlusion team updated the Game of Zones timeline.Root CauseThe bug came from the way that the capabilities module was being initialized inside Gaia. It was erroneously being initialized with a cached context, which meant that the changes made during application initialization were not correctly persisted to the store.We were able to identify this problem quickly, because it was, in fact, a known bug. It had actually been fixed in a patch for the Cosmos SDK, a week beforehand!So how did this bug persist in Gaia, even after it was identified and patched in the Cosmos SDK?Root-er CauseWe were able to pinpoint the buggy code, but we’ve also been able to find the bigger problem: As core development teams have decentralized across the Cosmos ecosystem, responsibility for maintaining Gaia hasn’t been clear. Although Gaia plays a key role as the daemon that runs the Cosmos Hub, it has a different software lifecycle from the Cosmos SDK and Tendermint Core. More concretely: Gaia is not updated as frequently, and changes to its dependencies may not get incorporated immediately.In this case, this mismatch created trouble.Next StepsIn the immediate term, Iqlusion will be responsible for porting SDK updates to Gaia. This arrangement will ensure that key fixes will be applied to Gaia, and that Gaia will be proactively maintained moving forward; not just during Game of Zones, but beyond, too. The Interchain GmbH team will help out here, too, by reviewing all Gaia releases and providing a second pair of eyes on this very important piece of software.The Interchain GmbH team will also start helping out with relayer development, testing, and support during Game of Zones. The truth is that Game of Zones has ended up being much more popular than any of us expected! Our hands-on community is overwhelmingly a blessing, but y’all have made Game of Zones a bigger project than what one team can handle alone.As I wrote in the beginning of this post: Game of Zones is an opportunity to unearth vulnerabilities in the IBC protocol and software; today we also found a gap in our ecosystem-wide organizational coverage and communication. And we’re patching these things, just as we’d patch our code. These changes will eventually help us continue Game of Zones in a robust and intentional manner, and it will ultimately help us launch IBC in a secure and stable way on the Cosmos Hub.The Interchain GmbH team wants to thank everyone for their ongoing participation, and especially for their feedback, during this process. We’re looking forward to the next phase — not only of Game of Zones, but of the Cosmos Ecosystem. Thanks for working with us to make it as ✨celestial✨ as possible.Technical Game of Zones Update from Interchain GmbH was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 05. 13

IRISnet Enterprise IRITA ha...

China’s Blockchain-based Service Network BSN officially kicked off in Beijing on April 25, 2020. The BSN initiative, a joint effort led by the State Information Center of China, China Mobile, China UnionPay, and Red Date Technology, is a standardized, nationwide public infrastructure network across different regions and business sectors to support faster and cheaper blockchain development and deployment. The announcement of the BSN launch saw coverage from the top media outlets within the country including People’s Daily Online, Sina Finance, and Tencent News. , the President of People’s Daily Online, outlined at the conference that BSN is emblematic of leveraging blockchain technology to conduct national strategies, address key issues, and create real value. The launch of BSN also captured widespread attention from overseas. Coindesk, for example, has provided consistent media coverage on the development of BSN since its initiation, most notably an in-depth interview with Yifan He, CEO of Red Date Technology. Red Date Technology is one of the founding members of BSN, responsible for architecting and operating the infrastructure. Mr. He briefly touched on the vision of BSN in the said interview: “One of our primary goals is to include as many blockchain frameworks as possible and make them accessible under one uniform standard on the BSN platform. In that way, we can save users’ overhead costs to build a blockchain while being able to offer more custom services.” A partnership between BSN and Cosmos was also mentioned by He. The partnership will be through IRITA, an enterprise-focused solution branching off of the Shanghai-based IRISnet project.How Does IRITA Support BSN?BSN introduces three network participant roles: 1)Cloud service providers; 2)Blockchain framework providers (particularly Consortium Blockchain); 3)Application developers. IRITA falls into the second category and the Shanghai based IRISnet dev team Bianjie has closely followed BSN’s design to get IRITA on board. The end goal is to provide the application developers to be able to build applications using IRITA on BSN.Since the beginning of 2020, Bianjie has been actively collaborating with Red Date Technology to adapt IRITA aligns with BSN’s adaptation standards. A prime example would be the encryption module Bianjie developed according to the specifications of China’s National Encryption Algorithm. Following a plug-and-play design approach, IRITA offers native support for different cryptographic algorithms according to customers’ specific needs, and the version of IRITA on BSN will use China’s National Encryption Algorithm. In January this year, Bianjie submitted various technical documentation on developing and deploying IRITA to the staff at BSN with the intention to help developers easily and quickly deploy their own IRITA runtime. We look forward to supporting more and more developers building on IRITA and grateful for the amazing feedback we have received from BSN so far. Currently, BSN supports top consortium blockchain frameworks including Hyperledger Fabric by IBM and FISCO BCOS by Tencent WeBank. It is our goal to see IRITA join the prestigious group and collaborate with other players in the space on driving the world towards a better future.What Value Does IRITA Bring to BSN?Powered by Tendermint and the IRIS SDK, IRITA (Inter-Realm Industry Trust Alliance)is the first enterprise-focused consortium blockchain coming out of the Cosmos ecosystem. Leveraging their extensive experience in providing technology solutions, Bianjie was able to deliver a slew of exciting features in IRITA including 1) privacy-preserving data sharing; 2) high-performance consensus engine; 3) advanced inter-chain communication; 4) highly practical on/off-chain interoperability; 5) and flexible digital asset modeling/exchange. IRITA carries the potential of being widely applied in finance, health care, supply chain, and other applicable business scenarios. Inspired by the Inter-Blockchain Communication IBC protocol by Cosmos, IRITA takes it one step further with its innovative service layer (a.k.a IRIS Services) in connecting blockchains with conventional enterprise applications, supporting data exchange between heterogeneous computing systems (e.g. public chains, consortium chains, and legacy systems). Particularly in the case of information exchange between public chains and consortium chains, IRITA in conjunction with the IRISnet service hub brings extraordinary value to the existing ecosystem and the future that has yet to come. The Bianjie team recently open-sourced implementation of integrating Chainlink as a trusted oracle into iService. The synergy between IRISnet and Chainlink has been a long time coming. During the BSN interview with Coindesk, Mr. He also mentioned besides Cosmos that BSN would also like to support Chainlink for oracle service, and we can expect IRITA and IRISnet to provide a very convenient integration path when bridging the Chainlink’s services for consortium blockchain applications on BSN.About Cosmos & IRISnetCosmos is one of the most prominent blockchain projects focused on inter-chain communication. Founded in 2016 by the core team behind Tendermint, the Cosmos project aims to bring inter-chain communication to an ecosystem of independent parallel blockchains. IRISnet (a.k.a IRIS Hub) is the world’s first self-evolving, BPoS (Bonded Proof-of-Stake) blockchain designed to be the foundation for next-generation distributed applications. Built with the Cosmos-SDK, the IRIS Hub enables cross-chain interoperability through a unified service model, while providing a variety of modules to support DeFi applications. IRITA is an enterprise blockchain product from the IRISnet development team.About ChainlinkChainlink is a decentralized oracle network that enables smart contracts to securely access off-chain data feeds, web APIs, and traditional bank payments.Resources developer-competition-award-of-china-blockchain-449a6cee8391 Enterprise IRITA has been chosen by BSN to support Cosmos Ecosystem was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 05. 11

Introducing “Code with us”

Introducing: “Code with Us”Live online workshops by CosmosThe world is shifting rapidly and life as we know it is subject to change. But these tumultuous times are also a great opportunity to reinvent ourselves and use this time to improve.As we continue the work of providing the developer community with information and resources, we are stepping up our efforts in securing personal guidance in onboarding a new wave of builders to the Cosmos ecosystem.While online events foster information sharing, new ideas and technology, hands-on teaching and training are equally as important. Teaching and educational resources can be overlooked, often requiring significant time, preparation and consideration. We want to support and create a space that promotes educators, quality resources and workshops that the whole ecosystem can benefit from — especially newcomers.To address this need, we are launching “Code with Us,” a live, interactive workshop program designed to educate and provide real-time practice to developers in the community.The Cosmos “Code with Us” program brings workshops from our home offices to yours. There couldn’t be a better time to invest in online learning, especially with so many people working from home.This program aims to provide everyone with access to the information and resources they need to become familiar with the Cosmos stack. These seminars are small workshops led by expert mentors from Tendermint Inc, Interchain GmbH, Agoric, Band Protocol,, Cosmic Compass & Freeflix Media, Cyber Devs, Chainsafe and others that will use their expertise to guide the community of developers from deploying a simple “Hello World” blockchain, to getting familiar with the Cosmos SDK architecture, running an IBC relayer, and much more.Participants have the opportunity to access hands-on live lessons to code together in real-time with some of the community’s most respected contributors. Most of the workshops are structured in two-hour sessions with associated online materials or tutorials, and will take place roughly every two weeks. If you are looking for a quick and fun introduction to Cosmos’ tech, this is the perfect way to get started. To get started, make sure you sign up for “Code with Us” workshops.We have put together a list of future workshops designed to educate, guide and inspire the next generation of innovators. Bear in mind that this list is subject to change as more community members express their enthusiasm to participate in the program.New to Cosmos? No worries! Come and join the workshops and pick up a new skill in just 2 hours! With so many interesting themes to choose from, you can pick your favorites and you’re all set to begin your journey into the vast universe of the Cosmos ecosystemSign up for the “Code with Us” workshop program. We’ll send you a link to add the calendar, email reminders of the upcoming workshops and a list of documentation for each session.What we expect participants to get out of this program:Get your hands dirty with Cosmos tech, and have fun while codingMaster the basics of programming your own blockchain application and get answers to your questions in real-timeUnderstand the common, high-level concepts of Cosmos SDK technologyDevelop basic skills in the Go programming languageRequirements:Participants of this course need to have basic programming skills as this is a course aimed at developersTo complete the interactive challenges of the course, you’ll need a desktop or laptop computer with an internet connectionBefore the course, you’ll need to install Go onto your computer. You can download it herePlease make sure to have google calendar so that you can log in and confirm your participation for the workshopThe workshops will be held in English and will be based on the existing @cosmos resources and documentation.The first workshop in this program is “Scavenger Hunt Tutorial” held by Billy Rennekamp scheduled for 11th May. (Billy is currently Interchain Foundation’s Grant Manager, Developer Relations at Interchain Gmbh and Founder of Clovers Network.)In this workshop, you will learn to build a working game with its own internal economy using the Cosmos SDK, a framework to build scalable and interoperable application-specific blockchains in Go. The workshop will use the ‘scavenger hunt’ tutorial led and designed by Billy Rennekamp. If you’d like to get a head start and check out what you’ll be getting into, take a look at (Scavenge).If you’d like to participate in the first workshop from this program, please sign up for “Code with Us” and we will send you a calendar invite. No registration fee is required.Future workshops will be announced two weeks in advance and we will onboard future participants through the same registration process to make sure your virtual seat is covered.The world is indeed changing, but let’s use this opportunity to develop the skills you’ve always wanted to sharpen!See you all in Cosmos!Introducing “Code with us” was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 05. 02

Cosmos Network is Coming to...

In light of recent events, while people are distancing themselves physically, the need for social connection has never been more pronounced. Despite capital markets and crypto markets alike having more than halved in value across the board on any given asset, we’ve been compelled to work smarter and more creatively than ever.Using creative treasury management, we’ve already started several ecosystem-bolstering initiatives aimed directly at supporting Cosmos Network’s most prolific contributors. Recent initiatives that were publicly announced were that of the Community Contributor Grants program and the Tendermint Inc ATOM Rebonding.Other ways we are continuing to grow the Cosmos community is by rolling out a series of online events in order to get you access to the same quality of workshops and content you’ve been accustomed to when you hear the name ‘Cosmos’. The first such online event will be launched in May.As May approaches, this not only means springtime, warmer weather, and hope, but in the cryptoverse, it means New York Blockchain Week. And with NYBW comes the annual CoinDesk Consensus:Distributed conference, the biggest token holder conference of the year that attracts crypto enthusiasts from over the world. Cosmos has been a mainstay at Consensus. In fact, it was in New York, this time two years ago, where one of the most memorable moments and viral memes in the history of the Cosmos-Ethereum friendship was birthed.🔔 👏 Do the words “Vitalik clapping” ring a bell? 👏 🔔If you’re bored and staying at home, you can watch the full-length boat party video here 👇 year, with no boat 😿 and no physical conference, the show must go on. We’re hosting an hour to hour and a half long video conference event at Consensus:Distributed this year in its “Foundations” segment on May 12th, the second day of the online conference.If you aren’t registered, you can register here, entirely for free, which is a steal compared to past conferences: Cosmos portion of the conference will have a (tentative) agenda broken down below over a 1–1.5 hour long period:If you haven’t registered, do it here 👇Website: Link: you there, Cosmonauts!The relentless pursuit to an Internet of Blockchains can not be contained by a pandemic. If your drive is to expand the Cosmos universe, then the fuel to take you there is your passion and curiosity.Your Friendly Fellow CosmonautThe views and details expressed in this blog post are those of All In Bits Inc (dba Tendermint Inc), and do not necessarily represent the opinions or actions of the Interchain Foundation.Cosmos Network is Coming to Consensus: Distributed was originally published in Cosmos Blog on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.


20. 04. 22

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